Era Of The Malacca Rules Sociology Essay Essay
- Problem Statement
- The impact of turning feminisation in public dealingss Fieldss.
- The gender stereotype affects the chances of public dealingss function orientation in calling.
- The negative feeling of feminisation public dealingss industry and function orientation affects public chooses public dealingss as their calling.
- Research Question
- General Objective
- Particular Objective
- Significant Of Study
- Model Of The Study
- Professional Experience
- Role Orientation
- Technician Role
- Manager Role
- Glass Ceiling
- Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
- 2.1 Public Relations Role Orientation
- 2.2 Gender Stereotype In Public Relations Roles
- 2.3 Relationship Between Roles And Glass Ceiling
- Chapter 3: Design Of The Investigation/ Methodology
- 3.1 Location of the Study
- 3.2 Population
- 3.3 Sampling
- 3.4 Operational Variables
- 3.4.1 Independent Variable
- 3.4.2 Dependent Variable
- 3.5 Instruments/ Research Design
- 3.5.1 Survey through Questionnaires
- 3.6 Data Collection
- 3.7 Data Analysis
Harmonizing to Hamdan Adnan, his book “ Prinsip Perhubungan Awam ” wrote Public Relations ( PR ) in Malaysia was get downing in early of epoch of the Malacca Rules. In the early epoch, the PR adviser bureaus grow quickly in Malaysia. Victoria Geyer ( 2008 ) mentioned that in the early twelvemonth at that place have most of the adult females chosen public dealingss as their calling. There have besides work forces come into public dealingss from other field and most of them have the background of how to pull off the concerns. Therefore, work forces have the good dialogue accomplishments which the most public dealingss adult females are missing. Victoria believes that adult females are good in their communicating accomplishments, but they still can non success to run a concern. Besides, adult females were placed in technician function that was because the societal outlook adult females were hapless directors ( Cline et al. , 1986 ) .
In nowadays society, gender stereotypes still exist which considered as “ adult females ‘s work ” . It is deep-seated in our society and go on affect the following coevals have the stereotype feeling toward the gender. The gender stereotypes besides affect in many Fieldss, one of the Fieldss is public dealingss calling. In public dealingss filed, there have about 70 per centum of the adult females dominate in public dealingss place. However, the merely 20 per centum of adult females in top leading functions in most of the bureaus. While adult females do hold a batch of chances in public dealingss career but they are non on par with work forces when they want to be direction ( Aldoory & A ; Toth, 2002 ) .
Besides, in 1986, the International Association of Business Communicators ( IABC ) has show the consequence of public dealingss field more toward feminisation ( Hon, 1995 ) . Women besides choose as more suited in technician functions while work forces are holding the characteristic to manage the director functions. The gender stereotype is impacting adult females and work forces in public dealingss calling. Some felt that adult females should rule “ adult females ‘s work ” and non taken the male-dominated professions like director functions. In the other side, Choi and Hon ( 2002 ) suggest that promote more adult females in powerful place like leading or director function might assist to alter the stereotypes that about in workplace.
In Malaysia, the gender stereotype continues to determine the functions and places in the calling. Women ever give the public feeling of weaker sex that easy dominated by work forces. In the PR calling, the glass ceiling between the gender and place which adult females face barriers to go top direction and even adult females become top direction but they still making the technician occupation. Therefore, the gender stereotype entreaty that was because they think that adult females can non make good in director function but work forces is better.
The impact of turning feminisation in public dealingss Fieldss.
From the phenomenon of turning feminisation of PR Fieldss in Malaysia, some of the populace had misunderstood about the public dealingss and they have the negative perceptual experience of PR is a function for adult females. In the feminisation industry, most of the male feel uncomfortable with the environment which adult females dominate the PR Fieldss and the growth of feminisation cause the gender stereotype toward PR function. Besides, work forces believe that if both of work forces and adult females applied the same PR occupation, the adult females have the high chances would be hired ( Grunig, Toth & A ; Hon, 2001 ) .
The gender stereotype affects the chances of public dealingss function orientation in calling.
In Malaysia, adult females have been labour force in many old ages but figure of adult females in managerial functions is rare. Women dominate PR because they are about 70 per centum in PR filed while there have a batch of chances for adult females in PR callings but the gender stereotype impacting the function orientation in the callings. Most of the people have the perceptual experience position work forces is dominate in direction but adult females in technician. Today, public dealingss still remains an business with a bulk of adult females in its work force. The turning feminisations in PR Fieldss lead the gender stereotype to the PR and affect PR function orientation in PR calling.
The negative feeling of feminisation public dealingss industry and function orientation affects public chooses public dealingss as their calling.
In the Malaysia society, there have non much male choose PR occupation as their calling that was because male think of PR occupation is for adult females while female think of PR Fieldss is a hard field to go managerial functions and they ever view as do the technician function. Besides, the negative unfavorable judgment of public toward public dealingss will impact them take public dealingss as their calling. Harmonizing to Ridgeway & A ; Correll ( 2004 ) , an single perceptual experience toward gender stereotype shapes the person ‘s behaviour and besides the calling pick.
How the gender stereotype impacting public dealingss function orientation in public dealingss calling in Malaysia?
What is the perceptual experience of public toward relationship between gender stereotype and public dealingss function orientation?
To look into the gender stereotype impacting public relation function orientation in public dealingss calling and the public toward relationship between gender stereotype and public dealingss function orientation.
1.5.1 To look into the gender stereotype impacting public dealingss function orientation in public dealingss calling in Malaysia.
1.5.2 To find the perceptual experience of public toward relationship between gender stereotype and public dealingss function orientation.
Significant Of Study
In this research, that is discussed about the relationship between gender stereotype and public relation function orientation in Malaysia. The public dealingss business is popularity that has attracted employees ( van Ruler, 2005 ) but, in the public dealingss fields the gender instability is appeal ( Farmer & A ; Waugh, 1999 ) . It gives the public negative feeling toward the public dealingss function orientation in the callings.
In Malaysia, there have small research is discuss about gender and function orientation and there are small surveies on the position of PR in Malaysia ( Krishnamurthy, 2005 ) . Besides, harmonizing to Hon ( 1995 ) mentioned that public dealingss field is more toward feminisation and its lead misunderstand to the populace. Therefore, it is indispensable to carry on more research to assist hereafter research workers develop and help public more understand about public dealingss.
Model Of The Study
Gender ( Male )
Gender ( Female )
Figure 1.1: Role Enactment Model ( Dozier and Broom, 1995 )
Adopted from: Development of the Manager Role in Public Relations Practice
Beginning from: Journal of Public Relations Research
The theoretical theoretical account in Figure 1.1 postulates dealingss among gender, professional experience and function orientation in public dealingss callings. The theoretical account linked gender to professional experience and with two difference functions which is technician and director function. From the Figure 1.1 can see that female more toward to technician function while male is more toward director function without any experience. In other side, female besides can be the director function with professional experience but some of them can non in director function because of glass ceiling. This theoretical account is help to specify the relationship between gender, professional experience and public relation function orientation in PR callings.
Harmonizing to Victoria Geyer ( 2008 ) mentioned that in the early twelvemonth at that place have most of the adult females chosen public dealingss as their calling. Until today, still a batch of adult females in public dealingss Fieldss and the PR Fieldss are more toward feminine. Besides, the theoretical account of Figure 1.1 is postulates the influence between gender, professional experience and occupational function enacted. Gender stereotype is the ground that affects the function orientation of public dealingss. The gender stereotype is impacting the place of the public relation in the calling. Womans who are possess professional experience sometime still difficult to go director function. There have the glass ceiling between the adult females and director function. Even the work forces are encroachment in PR calling but they still can keep the director function. Most of the people have the difference perceptual experience toward gender which frame work forces have the ability to manage concern but adult females is in family or some easy work like technician function.
In public dealingss Fieldss, there have up to 70 per centum adult females dominate public dealingss but merely about 20 per centum of adult females in top direction ( Aldoory, 2005 ) . Therefore, adult females are thought to be more suitable toward technician function in public dealingss Fieldss and work forces are possessing ability to manage clients and direction issues. Harmonizing to Cline et Al. ( 1986 ) stated that adult females were relegated to technician function is because the societal expect adult females were hapless directors. Therefore, adult females are self-select themselves into technician function but non director function. Besides, Aldoory and Toth ( 2005 ) mentioned that adult females in public dealingss are lacked the cognition and dialogue accomplishments. Mitrook ( 2004 ) concluded that adult females feel the degree of the technician is more suitable their degree. The place of technician degree license is low plenty for adult females and they can easy use the leave of absence.
From the theoretical account can see that adult females can be the director function with professional experience which harmonizing the Aldoory ( 2005 ) stated that merely 20 per centum of adult females in top direction. The theoretical account show that adult females are less likely to be director function even adult females and adult male is possessed same professional experience. Professional experience is non much of job that affects adult females and work forces in function orientation. Even adult females and adult male had the same experience but adult females still can non make the high place that because of glass ceiling but merely less of adult females can make it.
The theoretical theoretical account postulates that the professional experience impacting the function orientation but besides can impact by gender. Broom and Dozier ( 1986 ) stated that the functions were interchangeable in the same factor. There have two types of function which is technician and director that can depict technician as making the occupation like authorship, redacting, production and media contacts while director is like to manage the concern, program plans and do determination ( Gruning and Hunt, 1984 ) . Besides, in PR Fieldss work forces are more likely to advance into managerial function while adult females are more likely into technician functions. Technician and director function besides independent, the public dealingss director can non implement his occupation without the support of the public dealingss technician and besides proficient expertness ( Lubbe and Puth, 1994 ) .
In the society, technician function is deferred to adult females in public dealingss Fieldss. Wilcox and Cameron ( 2006 ) mentioned that adult females are segregated into lower degree of technician functions while work forces are promoted into more powerful managerial function. Besides, for those adult females who had professional experience are try to ordain in director function but less of female success in the place. In the other side, the adult females who have professional experience are self-select themselves as technician function which they think they are more suitable the degree of technician. As we know technician undertaking is such as authorship, redacting and handed media dealingss which look like more suitable for adult females.
The director function is making the undertaking like determination devising and manage client or concern and it is need a powerful people to make the place. Society had frame that adult male is making this sort of function which adult male have more characteristic of handle crisis or manage concern while even adult females in director function they still making the undertaking like technician but for adult male they will concentrate on the director undertaking. Both of adult male and adult females can be the director function but for work forces is rather easy than adult females. Manager function is need to pass determination doing which need a individual who has ability to do it every bit good. For this undertaking, it is more toward for work forces because they have the ability. It like what society expect to adult male and adult females is depend their ability. Furthermore, in today society that is non all adult females did non hold the ability be the director function, adult females are struggle with work forces to ordain the director place.
In Malaysia, the issue of glass ceiling starts to be under the calcium hydroxide visible radiation recently. The issue of glass ceiling of adult females still exist in public dealingss Fieldss even public dealingss more toward feminisation. The glass ceiling where it exists in public dealingss Fieldss which non merely single but whole society. The Department of Labor ( 1991 ) defined that glass ceiling is unreal barriers which is based on prejudice that prevent the individual who had the qualified upward to direction degree places. In the public relation that consist glass ceiling for adult females which adult females who are in technician function and want to be director function will confront the job of glass ceiling. Not even the single think about that, society besides think that adult females should make the adult females work. The glass ceiling do the adult females segregated into lower degree of technician functions. That is why the research show that merely 20 per centum of adult females engage in director function in public dealingss. Even adult females do hold a batch of chances in public dealingss Fieldss but they are non on par with work forces to be director function ( Aldoory & A ; Toth, 2002 ) .
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
In the literature reappraisal that have cover three chief capable countries. First, we will discourse about the public dealingss function orientation and what function they play in public dealingss field. Second, the country wills closer position around the gender stereotype in public dealingss function which help to understand how the stereotype affect public dealingss function in the calling. Last, we will deep discuss about relationship between functions and glass ceiling which to specify how the glass ceiling affect public dealingss function in the calling. This literature reappraisal will look at the old research that about function orientation and gender stereotype in public dealingss calling. Besides, these countries are besides help to understand how the gender stereotype impacting public dealingss function orientation in public dealingss calling.
2.1 Public Relations Role Orientation
Harmonizing of Algren and Eichhorn ( 2006, p.77 ) mentioned that public dealingss is a profession in function of expertness and duty exist. Besides, in the research of Simorangkir ( 2010, pg.73 ) stated that for the public dealingss practicians that have specific undertaking functions be defined through the old ages which include adept prescriber, problem-solving facilitator, communications facilitator, proficient service supplier, media dealingss specializers and communicating affair ( Broom & A ; Smith, 1979 ; Dozier, 1984 ) . That has many functions were alteration over clip and loaded into same factor which can reason that all public dealingss practicians ‘ activity will fell into two primary function types that is technicians and directors ( Broom and Dozier, 1986 ) .
Besides, Gruning and Hunt ( 1984 ) defined that directors is the individual who are consistently plan public dealingss plan, do communicating policy determinations and advocate direction ( cited in Lambert & A ; White, 2012, pg.6 ) . Technicians is the individual who are provide journalistic accomplishments like authorship, production and redacting but non the individual who are make determination for the organisation ( cited in Lambert & A ; White, 2012, pg.6 ) . In other side, Dozier ( 1984 ) mentioned that technicians are less in take parting in direction determination doing procedure but they can do the determination in the plan which is necessary for effectual map in their section ( cited in Ki & A ; Khang, 2008, p.101 ) . Furthermore, Lauzen ( 1992 ) stated that the technician or director function frequently enacted by public dealingss practicians ( cited in Verinder 2007, pg.5 ) .
Kabacoff ( 1998 ) highlighted that there have different characteristic between work forces and adult females in director function. He stated that male directors were holding the better emotional look, willing to take hazards in the work and can construct their cognition from experience. They were seen as more concerted and more persuasive than female directors. In the other side, female directors were more empathetic, better communicators and possess the people accomplishments like listening ability and development the relationships with equals but they are non perceived as leaders ( cited in Simorangkir, 2010, p.74 ) .
In the Verhoeven & A ; Aarts ( 2010, p.1 ) research mentioned that there have difference power between work forces and adult females in direction places in the organisation. They stated that the power and the construct of power is the chief ground to explicate the “ spread between adult females and work forces in direction ” ( Gruning, Toth & A ; Hon, 2001, p.102 ) . Besides, they besides stated that gender stereotypes in society that seem adult females are less powerful or approved ( Broverman, Vogel, Broverman, Clarckson, & A ; Rosenkranz, 1972 ) and this may even take to a deformed self-perception of adult females in power in the organisation ( Johnson, 1978, p.1 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to Umeogu & A ; Ifeoma ( 2012, p.152 ) claimed that the place automatic goes with the power which means that the higher you go, and so you will hold more power. Besides, Robinson ( 2005 ) besides found out that adult females were found in the center and it automatically affects the power which they brandish. Furthermore, with the findings of the survey, Umeogu & A ; Ifeoma ( 2012, p.152 ) found that companies and organisations of all work forces in the above will do all the determinations to keep their patriarchal consistent. When it comes to relationships and duties, both work forces and adult females seem to be on the same par value but when it is structured the incline graduated table more towards the males.
2.2 Gender Stereotype In Public Relations Roles
In the research of Lambert & A ; White ( 2012, pg.5 ) reported that there have about 70 per centum of public dealingss place is dominated by adult females which cause the field of public dealingss become feminized ( Wrigley, 2002 ) . Sha & A ; Toth ( 2005, p.93 ) besides mentioned at that place have 70 percent adult females and 30 per centum work forces in an business which reached a gender instability in the public dealingss Fieldss. Besides, Andsager & A ; Hust ( 2005 ) besides mentioned that public dealingss business become popular because the entryway of adult females is more than work forces late. Creedon ( 1991 ) stated that although the figure of adult females to work forces in certain businesss that may alter over clip but no affair it is typed of masculine or feminine business the proportion of adult females and work forces in certain business is the best forecaster ( cited in Lambert & A ; White, 2012, pg.5 ) .
Furthermore, harmonizing to Aldoory & A ; Toth ( 2002 ) stated that most of the adult females are employed as technician functions while work forces are more likely to be promoted as managerial functions in public dealingss. They besides mentioned that work forces in public dealingss earn more than adult females overall. Farmer and Waugh ( 1991 ) besides found that adult females are higher desire to execute in technician function and work forces expected higher wage, that was possibly because adult females are less aggressive when seeking director function and negociating wage ( cited in Lambert & A ; White, 2012, pg.5 ) . Besides, Geyser-Semple ( 2011 ) found that in public dealingss field major stereotype images toward adult females as better in pass oning but worse in concern accomplishments. Aldoory & A ; Toth ( 2002 ) reported that adult females do hold a batch of chances in public dealingss when they are traveling to direction but they are non on par with work forces at the clip ( Janus, 2008, p.1 ) . It besides because of the gender stereotype and glass ceiling that affect adult females lost their chances in public dealingss.
In add-on, harmonizing to Owen, Javalgi and Scherer ( 2008 ) reported that many ground cause the negative stereotype toward adult females in director function such as instruction degree, adult females ‘s socialisation and limited entree to communist party ( Bhatti, Sundram and Chee, 2012, p.28 ) . Furthermore, Ayenibiowo ( 2010 ) reported there have different outlooks between work forces and adult females. He besides defined adult females ‘s functions as more like care-givers and adult females were more expected in domestic work while work forces were defined as more strength and ability to finish the physical labour ( cited in Golden, 2011, pg.2 ) . In Golden ( 2011, pg.5 ) research showed that there have a batch of adult females in the workplace from a feminist position but less of information is focuses on the male population and the message of communicating were they received. Kim ( 2008, p.1 ) besides mentioned that work forces are more likely to keep the power and socially outstanding places while adult females are more likely to keep the supportive functions. Besides, Becker & A ; Moen ( 2002 ) highlighted that adult females experience more responsible for household and place undertakings cause them deficiency of the experience and limit their function in place ( Kim, 2008, p.5 ) . The Excellence survey of Grunig et Al. ( 2002 ) besides showed that adult females in the organisation of adult females than work forces are less support and CEOs seems to hold outlooks of the direction of adult females with less capacity when there have more adult females in direction places in public dealingss ( Verhoeven & A ; Aarts, 2010, p.2 ) .
From the research of Celebi ( 2012, p.3 ) mentioned that the hereafter practicians ( pupils ) view the gender inequality job as gender unfairness in salary and promotional promotions ( Sha & A ; Toth, 2005 ; Toth & A ; Cline, 1991 ) . Therefore, Dozier, Sha and Okura ( 2007 ) reported that gender difference in wages is based on adult females ‘s inclination of their calling or their kids because most of the adult females still largely concentrated for their household. Darley & A ; Fazio ( 1980 ) , Geis ( 1993 ) and Snyder ( 1992 ) mentioned that the person ‘s calling and household function that frequently impacting by gender stereotype which through the procedure of anticipation verification and self-regulation ( cited in Gadassi & A ; Gati, 2009, p.903 ) . Furthermore, Anker ( 1998 & A ; 2001 ) , Badgett & A ; Folbre ( 2001 ) , Betz ( 1994 ) , Cejka & A ; Eagly ( 1999 ) said that the influence of gender stereotype toward work forces ‘s occupational pick is same with adult females but the consequence have show that are more destructive for adult females because the gender stereotype have limit the businesss to adult females with the less prestige and position and lower paid ( cited in Gadassi & A ; Gati, 2009, p.904 ) .
2.3 Relationship Between Roles And Glass Ceiling
In Thomas ( 2005, p.8 ) research mentioned that the term of glass ceiling has describe as “ unseeable barriers for adult females when covering with publicity and wages ” . The Department of Labor ( 1991 ) defined the glass ceiling as barriers that prevent the qualified persons from progress upward to direction degree place which based on the attitudinal or organisational prejudice ( Wrigley, 2002, p.1 ) . Burke and Vinnicombe ( 2005 ) ; International Labour Office ( 2004 ) ; McLeod ( 2008 ) besides defined the glass ceiling metaphor is used to depict obstructions in adult females when they seeking publicities to the top degrees in organisations ( cited in Smith, Crittenden & A ; Caputi, 2012, p.1 ) . Besides, Powell ( 1999 ) and US Department of Labor ( 1991 ) reported that grounds suggests that adult females in direction still to progress in corporate hierarchies before faced the glass ceiling which prevents or reduces adult females making top direction ( Dreher, 2003, p.542 ) . Even there have about 70 percent female in public dealingss but merely 20 per centum of adult females promoted in director function ( Aldoory,2005, cited in Janus, 2008 ) , while work forces are more in director function with higher wages.
Besides, Dozier ( 1988 ) in his research besides showed that have some grounds why adult females barrier by glass ceiling which foremost is because the gender stereotypes. He defines gender stereotypes as beliefs that a batch of people hold the typical features which work forces hold the masculine stereotypes and adult females hold the feminine stereotypes. He said that male child and miss have different characteristic which appropriate for their sex ( Thomas, 2005, p.8 ) . In add-on, Poffenberger ( 2007, p.1 ) stated that adult females function in the work force still clearly affected by gender stereotypes which is because the feminisation of public dealingss. The feminisation of public dealingss besides cause the adult females faced a dual glass ceiling in public dealingss and calling pick. The glass ceiling phenomenon is an unseeable barrier that blocks the adult females traveling to higher place of an organisation.
Wrigley ( 2002, p.28 ) reported that the glass ceiling still exists which non merely for single but whole society. Furthermore, Macarie & A ; Moldovan ( 2012, p.155 ) stated that in an organisation that provide power and position for both work forces and adult females but the glass ceiling limits the adult females entree the place in an organisation. In Zainal ( 2009, p.41 ) research reported that the glass ceiling issue starts to be lime light recently in Malaysia. She besides found that many research workers discussed about work forces and adult females had contributed every bit in their work but it is still block of giving opportunity for adult females in the work. Besides, Dozier ( 1988 ) noted that a good director that hold the feature of masculine stereotypes so it make about impossible for adult females to take part in determination devising and interrupt the glass ceiling in public dealingss ( cited in Thomas 2005, p.9 ) . In the other side, Dozier and Broom ( 1995 ) found that female public dealingss professional who are interrupting glass ceiling in public dealingss Fieldss are now doing more money. They besides noted that it can non observe gender para through this advancement ( cited in Janus 2008, pg.20 ) .
Thomas ( 2005, p.9 ) stated that are common position for adult females as technician function because it consistent with feminine stereotypes and adult females have the feature of feminine stereotypes to attach their work. In add-on, he noted that work forces are keeping the feature of masculine stereotypes which fulfill the director function. Therefore, in the Broom and Dozier ‘s ( 1986 ) survey reported that adult females were demote to technician function that was because the societal expected adult females were hapless directors in public dealingss. This is one of the grounds why adult females self-select themselves into a technician function ( Cline et al. , 1986, cited in Geyer, 2008, p.8 ) . Besides, Mitrook ( 2004 ) stated that adult females feel their degree are more suit to technician degree occupations because technician places is allow them have a leave of absence from their place. This behaviour show that adult females are non carry through the required of managerial places ( cited in Geyer, 2008, p.9 ) .
Geyer ( 2008, p.9 ) noted that if a adult females want be a director function and win in public relation they need some other accomplishments required such as critical thought and direction accomplishments because of gender stereotypes adult females viewed as suited to be technician function and as better communicators. Furthermore, if adult females want be a director function still necessitate to interrupting the glass ceiling foremost because of the gender stereotypes adult females miss a batch of chance be the director function. There have many researcher stated that most of the adult females can non make in top direction because of the glass ceiling and gender stereotypes. However, in Smith, Crittenden & A ; Caputi ( 2012, p.1 ) research mentioned there is strong grounds of adult females in leading places in many states such as Australia, China, France, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States. Womans are non merely in lower place in the twenty-four hours ; they besides can make the higher place in the organisations.
Chapter 3: Design Of The Investigation/ Methodology
In this survey, the quantitative research technique will be usage which is study questionnaires. The study questionnaires will assist me to bespeak the impact of gender stereotype toward public dealingss function orientation in public dealingss calling.
3.1 Location of the Study
In this survey, Klang Vally will be taking as the research country which is because there have more public dealingss industry in this country. This topographic point is full of crowded and there have more of companies which can easy to make the research. It is besides acquire the higher chance to happen the respondents from public and public dealingss.
In the Klang Valley there have about 7.5 million of people while Petaling Jaya has more than 1.5 million of people. Approximate of the population in this survey will be 100 respondents of public and public dealingss in Petaling Jaya country. There have more than 100 public dealingss industry in Petaling Jaya country and it can assist me to carry through the research.
The method that I have chosen in this survey is selective trying which is a type of non-probability samples and it will utilize by study questionnaire. There have 100 sets of the questionnaires will administer to the public and public dealingss in Klang Valley from the population and merely the selecting people are able to take answer the inquiries. The 50 sets of questionnaires will administer to public which 25 sets to male and others 25 sets to female. Another 50 sets questionnaire besides will be distribute which 25 sets to male public dealingss and 25 sets to female public dealingss.
3.4 Operational Variables
3.4.1 Independent Variable
Independent variable is something that does non depend on other variables which means the variable that can be control and find the ascertained result of the research. In this survey, the independent variable is gender stereotype toward public dealingss.
3.4.2 Dependent Variable
Dependent variable is the variable will be changed by the independent variable which means the variable can be measured as an result. The dependent variable of this survey is the public dealingss function orientation in public dealingss calling.
3.5 Instruments/ Research Design
3.5.1 Survey through Questionnaires
In this survey, the study questionnaires will set up into four subdivisions. Section A is about the demographics while subdivision B is about the apprehension of gender stereotypes. Therefore, Section C is about perceptual experience between gender and function orientation. Lastly is the Section D which about the sentiment of the respondent toward the gender stereotypes and public dealingss function orientation. Besides, there have about 28 inquiries in the questionnaires which allocate into Section A to Section D.
For the Section A which can cognize the basic information from the respondents such as age, gender, degree of instruction, place and old ages of working experience in public dealingss field. Besides, from the Section A, I can cognize the relationship between the gender, place and old ages of working experience. It helps me to place the impact of gender toward public dealingss function orientation.
In Section B which can assist me to place the respondent apprehension of gender stereotype. Therefore, in Section C, I can happen out the relationship of gender and function orientation. It can assist me to place the respondent ‘s perceptual experience toward gender and function orientation. Besides, I besides can happen out the influence of gender toward the function orientation in public dealingss calling.
Furthermore, Section D can assist me to analysis the sentiment of the respondents which toward the gender stereotypes and function orientation of public dealingss. I can cognize how their perceptual experience of the public dealingss calling in Malaysia.
In add-on, the study questionnaires will apportion into the two classs people which is public and public dealingss. It helps me to happen out the difference perceptual experience from public and public dealingss toward the gender stereotype and function orientation in public relation house.
3.6 Data Collection
The day of the month of the information collects back will be set on 10th December 2012 to 24th December 2012. The questionnaires will be distributed to the choosing people and roll uping during the clip.
3.7 Data Analysis
After collect the information, the information analysis will be get down to acquire the consequence of research determination. The statistic of the study will be calculated manually on the respondent ‘s replies and acquire the consequences. I will utilize pie chart or tabular arraies to summary the information and explicate the consequences that get from the respondents.