Equipment Safety in Automobile Industry Essay Essay
A study submitted in partial fulfilment of the demands of 5 old ages Integrated MBA ( Tech ) Program of Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & A ; Engineering. NMIMS 3
This is certify that Mr. Arjun Duvedi Roll No 602 completed the preparation & A ; undertaking as a portion of Technical Internship in our company every bit mentioned below and the study is besides submitted. ( I ) Undertaking Title: Equipment Safety In Automobile Industry.
( two ) Date Of Joining: 5th February 2013
( three ) Date Of Completion: 27th April 2013
In partial fulfilment of XIII Trimester Technical Internship for MBA ( Tech ) plan of Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & A ; Engineering. Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies ( NMIMS ) ( Deemed-to-be University ) . Mumbai. Industry Mentor: Mr. S. K. Kaushik
Date: 27th April 2013
Topographic point: Gurgan
Company Sealing wax:
The 3 month industrial preparation is so the most of import and built-in portion of our course of study at the Mechanical Engg. Deptt. At Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and Engineering. Shirpur Campus. The industrial preparation gives us an ample chance to develop a regular and first manus industrial experience non merely towards proficient but all unit of ammunition development besides. Bing able to see and larn about the existent execution of the topics we study is so a valuable experience. The work civilization of the taking industrial constitution of the state enhances the person’s overall proficient aptitude and provided me with ample chance to interact with senior applied scientists and larn from their experience and proficient penetration.
Training at MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LIMITED has non merely been good in the proficient facets ( as it has given me an unprecedented chance to exert and set into pattern. some of the theoretical facets of technology ) . but besides contributed vastly and actively towards growing in the personal capacity. as a more thought. efficient. organized and cognizant single. I express my gratitude to all the people at Maruti Suzuki India Limited who in malice of their busy agendas took personal involvement to guarantee that this preparation period is a thorough acquisition procedure for me. I have no uncertainty now that my pick of preparation was right and the exposure and experience gained at Maruti has been alone. The Maruti household Teachs rigorous self-denial. and a end oriented attack. I would wish to thank Mr. Soarabh Pathak for giving me this chance to work in the SMED section and to cognize more about the systems at MSIL. I would wish to thank Mr. S. K. Kaushik ( my undertaking usher ) for steering me. affecting me in idea raising treatments. giving me undertakings and acquiring me acquainted with the work moralss of this organisation. 5
Table OF CONTENT
1. ABSTRACT 6
2. Introduction 7
3. Historical Background Of MSIL 8
4. Plant LAYOUT OF MSIL 9
5. THE COMPANY VISION 10
6. THE PHILOSOPHY 10
7. Choice MOVEMENT IN MARUTI 11
8. Environment POLICY 12
9. COMPANY HIERARCHY 13
10. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE 14
11. MILESTONES REACHED BY MARUTI 15
12. Undertaking REP0RT 18
12. 1. Machine Guarding Safety Standards and guidelines 19
12. 2. Conveyor safety Standards and Guidelines 39
12. 3. Means Of Access Safety Standards 50
12. 4. Robotic Safety Standards and Guidelines 58
12. 5. Electrical Safety Standards and Guidelines 79
12. 6. Hoisting Equipment Safety Standards and Guidelines 87
12. 7. Biological Safety Standards and Guidelines 94
12. 8. Automated Guided Vehicle Safety Standards 116
12. 9. Radiation Safety Standards and Guidelines 127
12. 10. Conventional Machine Safety Guidelines 140
13. Mentions 159
The undertaking on Equipment Safety in the Automobile Industry brings into focal point the demand to follow safety mechanism in the car industry. Industrialization has bought in mechanization of a big figure of undertakings in the fabrication of cars. With addition in machinery and mechanization at that place has been a corresponding addition in chance of happening of accidents ensuing in hurt jeopardy to workers. production slippages and fiscal losingss. In order to cut down accidents and guarantee safety. there is a demand to put down certain guidelines in the operation in the car industry. Safety criterions are the most recognized methodological analysis to document the demands for the safety in the industry. The undertaking was undertaken at Maruti Suzuki India Limited works at Gurgaon Haryana. The purpose of the undertaking is to better safety and cut down chance of accidents in MSIL. insure safety and secure working environment for the operator. and to organize a digest of equipment safety criterions that may be used throughout the company.
The undertaking besides attempts to propose ways to better the present safety consciousness. The methodological analysis adopted during the readying of the undertaking was to obtain cognition of the equipment used for fabricating procedure. exhaustively examine the work performed by the equipment/machine and analyze/identify the possible jeopardies associated with the equipment used. This would be studied in the visible radiation of the past experiences of the operator. Based on an analysis arrive at recommended safety steps to forestall the accidents. In making the analysis assorted regulations and ordinances with respects to safety would be referred to. This would ensue in puting down safety criterions for MSIL in peculiar and Automobile Industry in general. Worldwide bing criterions and standard operating processs of MSIL would be referred to. While there are opportunities that accidents could happen due to a figure of grounds and truth of topographic points. this undertaking study covers merely Equipment Safety in Automobile Industry 7
Happening of accidents in the work topographic point is a cause of concern all over the universe. Statisticss in United Kingdom for the twelvemonth 2011-2012 indicate 1. 1 million working people suffered from a work-related unwellness. 173 workers were killed at work. 1. 11. 000 other hurts to employees were reported. 2. 12. 000 over-3-day absence hurts occurred. 27 million working daies were lost due to work-related unwellness and workplace hurt and Workplace hurts and sick wellness ( excepting malignant neoplastic disease ) cost society an estimated ?13. 4 billion in 2010/2011 ( Source Health and safety executive-www. hse. gov. United Kingdom ) . The state of affairs is non so different in India. albeit documented informations is non readily available. Acerate leaf to state that there is a shouting demand to guarantee safety at work topographic point. The purpose of the undertaking is to acquire acquainted with the assorted machinery/equipment used in the car fabrication industries. place likely jeopardies. work out safety steps and signifier safety criterions for the same 8
Historical Background Of MSIL
Maruti Suzuki India Limited was established in Feb 1981 through an Act of Parliament. to run into the turning demand of a personal manner of conveyance caused by the deficiency of an efficient public conveyance system. The existent production commenced in 1983 with the Maruti 800. based on the Suzuki Alto kei auto which at the clip was the lone modern auto available in India. it’s merely competitorsthe Hindustan Ambassador and Premier Padmini were both around 25 old ages out of day of the month at that point. Through 2004. Maruti Suzuki has produced over 5 Million vehicles. Maruti Suzuki’s are sold in India and several other states. depending upon export orders. Models similar to Maruti Suzuki’s ( but non manufactured by MarutiUdyog ) are sold by Suzuki Motor Corporation and manufactured in Pakistan and other South Asiatic states.
Maruti Suzuki has been the leader of the Indian auto market for over two decennaries. Its fabrication installations are located at two installations Gurgaon and Manesar South of Delhi. The Gurgaon Manufacturing Facility has three to the full incorporate fabrication workss and is dispersed over300 estates. The Manesar Manufacturing Plant was inaugurated in February 2007 and is spread over 700 estates.
Plant LAYOUT OF MSIL
THE COMPANY VISION
“To go an internationally competitory company in footings of production volume. costs and profits” is the vision of this company. They believe in: “We must non merely keep leading in India but should draw a bead on to be amongst the planetary participants. The civilization. thought and actions have all to be consistent with this vision. ” Today Maruti is stated as. ? The leader in the Indian car industry
? Making client delectation and shareholder’s wealth
? A pride of India
The company’s vision for the hereafter is to go an internationally competitory company in footings of production volume. quality. cost and net incomes. The vision is a realistic. believable and attractive hereafter that the company visualizes for its organisation and all its employees. It is an articulation of a finish towards which the organisation is traveling. a hereafter that is well better than the current province. The vision helps the company in traveling consciously. continuously and in a focussed mode towards the coveted province. If the vision is the finish. the mission is the agencies by which the company is traveling towards it. If the vision is a end. the mission is the tool for accomplishing the vision. A mission defines what the organisation has been established to carry through. It determines the intent of its operations. 11
The company aims to do 3-R a regular portion of its production life The 3-R base for the followers:
Choice MOVEMENT IN MARUTI
Maruti invariably enterprises to bring forth better goods and service. because this is the lone manner to retain market portion and turn both in the domestic and the international market in line with company’s vision. Directors throughout the company support quality betterment procedure such as Kaizen. Quality Circle activities etc. Quality tools like 5S. 3G and 3K are besides practiced extensively in the company. 5 ‘S’ OF MSIL
? SEIRI – PROPER SELECTION
? SEITON – ARRANGEMENT
? SEISO – Cleaning
? SEIKETSU – CLEANLINESS
? SHITSUKE – DISCIPLINE
3 ‘G’ OF MSIL
3G agencies: “In instance of an abnormalcy. all concerned members should really travel to the topographic point where the job has occurred. see the existent thing and
take Realistic action to work out the problem” . In the Nipponese linguistic communication this point is compiled in 3 words: – ? GEINCHI – ACTUAL PLACE
? GENBUTSU – ACTUAL Thing
? GENJITSU – ACTUALLY
3 ‘K’ OF MUL
? KIMERAARETA KOTO GA: What has been decided
? KIHON DORI: As per the criterion
? KICHIN TO MAMORU: Must be followed
AVOID THE 3-M ( Problems impacting production )
? Muri – Inconvenience
? Mura – Wastage
? Muda – Inconsistency
? Maintain & A ; better upon our environmental direction system & A ; public presentation ? Observe environmental Torahs & A ; farther follow our ain criterions. ? Decrease force per unit area placed on the environment ensuing from concern activities & A ; merchandise. ? Promote environmental communicating.
Senior Executive/Asst. Manager
Department Manager ( DPM ) /DGM/AGM
Deputy Divisional Manager ( DDVM ) /GM
Divisional Manager ( DVM ) /CGM
Joint Managing Director
( JMD )
Pull offing Director
( MD )
Maruti has believed. since the really get downing that it is its employees who could do it into an organisation with a difference. Consequently. as against the traditional hierarchal system of direction. which causes unneeded holds in decision-making. we have built up a level organisation with a household type of ambiance at our topographic point of work. The Company is divided into different divisions harmonizing to the assorted functional countries. A Divisional Manager caputs each Division. Divisions are farther divided into Departments that are headed by Department Managers who report to the several Divisional Managers.
Appellations in the Company are based on the functional duty and non degrees as in footings of the Company’s doctrine appellations and functional duty are de-linked from the salary degrees. The entire operations of the Company are divided into Divisions like Marketing & A ; Gross saless. Spare parts. Safety. Engineering. Q. A. & A ; Services. Production. Production Engineering. Materials. Information Services. Finance. Personnel & A ; Administration. etc. Each Division is fostering divided into Departments and headed by Departmental Managers who is assisted by Supervisory Executives. 15
MILESTONES REACHED BY MARUTI
? Launch of Kizashi
? Launch of Wagon R New
? Launch of Maruti Suzuki Ritz
? Launch of Swift Dzire
? Launch of Maruti Suzuki A-star
? Launch of SX4
? WagonR Lx & A ; Lxi LPG auto works and the Diesel engine installation commenced
operations during 2006-2007 at Manesar. Haryana 2005
? The fiftieth lac auto axial rotations out in April. 2005
? Alto becomes India’s new best-selling auto
? LPG discrepancy of ‘Omni Cargo’
? Versa 5-seater. a new discrepancy
? Baleno LXi. a new discrepancy
? Maruti closed the fiscal twelvemonth 2003-04 with an one-year sale of 472122 units. the highest of all time since the company began operations 20 old ages ago 2003
? New Suzuki Grand Vitara XL-7
? Enters into partnership with State Bank of India
? Production of 4 millionth vehicles. Listed on BSE and NSE after a public issue oversubscribed 10 times 16
? WagonR Pride
? Esteem Diesel. All other discrepancies upgraded
? Maruti Insurance. Two new subordinates started: Maruti Insurance Distributor Services and Maruti Insurance Brokers Limited ? Alto Spin LXi. with electronic power maneuvering
? Special edition of Maruti 800. India’s foremost color-coordinated auto ? MARUTI Finance in Mumbai with 10 finance companies
? Zen LXi Maruti True Value launched in Bangalore and Delhi ? Maruti Versa. India’s first luxury MPV
? Alto Vxi
SOME OF THE COMPANY ACHIEVEMENTS SO FAR
All Indian Engineering Export Promotion Council ( EEPC ) Award 1987-88
Excellent public presentation in Suzuki International QC Circle competition. National productiveness Council ( NPC ) Award for best public presentation. MARUTI 800 & A ; OMNI accepted as cab by Maharashtra Govt. 1988
Indian National Suggestion Scheme Association ( INSSAN ) Award 1988-89
1st in CEI QC Competition.
Good housekeeping award by Haryana Govt.
Red Cross Blood Donor Award by Haryana Govt.
Good Housekeeping Award.
Performance Acknowledged by Economic Times & A ; Howard Business School Association of India. Corporate Performance Award For Best in Public sector.
COP Certification from AIB VINCOTTE of Belgium.
Best Canteen & A ; Best Creche by Haryana Govt.
Smugglers Up in Best Production public presentation in Automobile Industry EEPC Award
National Award for Energy Conservation. EEPC award.
EXIM Star Trophy for outstanding Export Performance by JLN Port-Trust. 1996
Certificate of Significant Achievement under the CII Business excellence Award was given. 1996-07
Hero Honda Rolling Trophy
1st in CII ( North ) QC Circle Competition.
MUL has been granted STAR TRADING HOUSE STATUS w. e. f. 01/04/96 to 31/03/99 by Ministry of Commerce based on export public presentation of MUL in last 3 old ages. Our aim is to go SUPER STAR TRADING HOUSE by 1999 which could be
achieved by increasing exports @ 30 % p. a. MUL has been awarded the National Export Award. for excellence in exports in the Engineering Goods class ( Motor Vehicles. Auto Spare Parts & A ; Components ) . 1998
CII-Exim Award for Business Excellence for 1998 was given to MUL. Recertification on ISO-9002
ISO -14001 certification on environment direction system
ISO –2001 enfranchisement
? In add-on to the above MSIL has bagged the J. D. Power client satisfaction award a record four times consecutively. the old ages being 2000. 2001. 2002 and 2003. 18
To supply proper safeguarding of the machines and operators. 2. Different Guarding Procedures:
2. 1 Machine Guards:
A fixed guard is a lasting portion of the machine. It is non dependent upon traveling parts to execute its intended map. This guard is normally preferred to all other types because of its comparative simpleness and
permanency. ( Section 4. 13 ) Interlocked Guard: Interlocked guards automatically shut off or withdraw the power when opened or removed. The machine can non rhythm or be started until the guard is back in topographic point. ( subdivision 10 ) 21 Adjustable guards: Adjustable guards are utile because they allow flexibleness in suiting assorted sizes of stuffs to be cut. shaped. or formed. ( Section 14 ) Self-Adjustable Guards: The gaps of self-adjustable guards are determined by the motion of the stock. As the operator moves the stock into the danger country. the guard is pushed off. supplying an gap that is merely big plenty to acknowledge the stock. After the stock is removed. the guard returns to the remainder place. ( Section 14 )
2. 2 Pressure-Sensing Devicess:
Photoelectrical ( optical )
Feeling Device: It uses a system of light beginnings and controls that can disrupt the machine’s runing rhythm. If the field of visible radiation is broken. the machine Michigan and will non rhythm.
This device should be used merely on machines that can be stopped before the worker can make the danger country. ( Section 8. 5 )
Radio-Frequency ( electrical capacity )
It uses a wireless beam that is portion of the machine control circuit. When the electrical capacity field is broken. the
machine will halt or will non trip. Like the photoelectric device. this device should merely be used on machines that can be stopped before the worker can make the danger country. This requires A clash clutches etc. ( Section 8. 5 ) Electromechanical Feeling
Device: It has a investigation or contact saloon that descends to a predetermined distance when the operator initiates the machine rhythm. If there is an obstructor forestalling it from falling its full predetermined distance. the control unit does non trip the machine rhythm. ( Section
8. 5 )
I. Guards should hold a proviso for machine oiling. review. accommodation and fixs. J. The guards should be constructed such as to withstand/resist normal wear and daze. k. Guards should be lasting. fire resistant. corrosion immune and easy repaired. l. They should defy long usage with minimal care.
m. Guards should non be the ground for any jeopardy by themselves. They should non hold matchwoods. inch pints. shear points. crisp corners. unsmooth borders or other beginnings of accidents. n. Guards should protect against operational eventualities. non simply against usually expects jeopardy. 3. 2 The preferable stuff for guards under most fortunes should be metals. Model of guards should be by and large be made from construction subdivisions. pipes. strapping. bars or rods. 3. 3 The paneling stuff should be by and large made of solid sheet metal. expanded or perforated metal or wire mesh. The usage of plastic or safety glass is recommended where visibleness is required. 3. 4 Guards made of wood may be used but they have limited applications due to the deficiency of ductileness and strength. They have a comparatively high care cost and flammability. 3. 5 Guards should be firmly fastened to the floor. the machine. wall. waterproofing or other stiff object/fixed construction and should be kept in topographic point whenever the machine is operated. 26
4. Guarding Frame Work:
4. 2 The minimal dimension of stuffs for the model of the guards made from structural sheet should be in conformity with the following tabular array ( See
subdivision 13 ) Types of Guards
Guards with a tallness of 75cm or less and a surface country non transcending 1sq. m 1 centimeters diameter
Other buildings of equal strength may be used.
Guards with tallness more than 75cm and a surface country more than 1sq. m —
a. Other buildings of equal strength may be used.
B. The guard should be stiffly braced every 90 centimeter of fractional portion of its tallness to some fixed portion of the machine or edifice construction. Un-braced Guards:
When the guard is fastened on a on the job platform without any support or brace —
Other metal building of equal strength
5. Height of Guards:
The minimal tallness of guards should be 2. 60 m from the floor or platform degree. The dimension may alter if particular instructions are given. 27
6. Floor Clearance:
Guard should hold a clearance of approximately 15cm from the floor ( if practicable ) to forestall intervention with clearance around the machine. 7. Standard Railing and Toe-Board:
7. 2 The criterion railing should be 105 centimeter in tallness. with mid-rail between top rail and floor. 7. 3 Posts should non be more than 240 cm apart. They should be lasting and significant and smooth. and free from stick outing nails. bolts and matchwoods. 7. 4 If made of pipe. the station should be 30 mm indoors diameter or larger. If made of metal subdivision or bars. their subdivision should be equal in strength to that of 38 ten 38 ten 5 mm angle Fe. 7. 5 The tracks should be on that side of the station which gives best protection and support. 7. 6 Toe-boards should be 10 centimeter or more in tallness.
8. Trip Guard Specifications:
8. 1 Trip guard should be so arranger that an attack by a individual beyond a safe bound causes the guard to travel and the machinery to halt and/or change by reversal its gesture before any portion of the individual can make the unsafe portion. 8. 2 They are recommended to be used on machines which are usually in uninterrupted gesture where the custodies have to temporarily come in a infinite swept by the unsafe portion or where miring in an article or stuff which is being fed to a machine may happen. 28
8. 3 They can besides be used where a individual may be injured by being pulled against or through the provender gap of a fixed guard. In such fortunes the individual comes in contact with the guard or portion of the guard capable of motion under force per unit area and causes the stumbling device to run. 8. 4 The effectual public presentation of a trip guard is greatly dependent upon the halting features of the machine which shall be controlled within defined bounds. An efficient brake is usually a necessity. Trip guards. while usually of a mechanical nature. besides include electro-sensitive devices such as those using the photoelectric rules. 8. 5 The specifications of the electro-electric device are given as follows: 8. 5. 1 At all times while any portion of a individual is within the danger zone. the device should guarantee that such parts of the machine whose motion is a beginning of danger can non come into gesture. 8. 5. 2 If a portion is in gesture and a individual attack the danger zone. the portion should be brought to rest in clip so as to guarantee that the manus or any other portion of such a individual does non acquire trapped in the machine. 8. 5. 3 When the device is wholly assembled and is in right working status shall non be so affected by isolated visible radiation ( unreal. natural. or intentionally applied ) as to do danger. 8. 6 The design of trip guards of mechanical type should be such that the machinery can non once more be set in gesture unless and until the guard has been reset. 9 Two Hand Control
Devicess And Two Hand Control System:
9. 1 This method is employed to accomplish safety of the worker by maintaining both his custodies off from the danger country. 29
9. 2 Two push buttons or levers are interlocked automatically. electrically or both in such a manner that it becomes necessary for the operator to force both the buttons to run the machine. 9. 3 In instance there is more than one device provided on the machine. it should be necessary for the operator to force all the buttons/levers at the same time to run the machine ( See Section 12. 3 ) . 9. 4 Two-hand control should be located in such a place that after go forthing the control buttons/levers. the custodies of the operator can non make the point of operation before the gesture of machine has been stopped. 9. 5 This safety distance between the control button/lever from the point-of operation is determined on the premise that the velocity of the custodies traveling from button/lever to the point-of-operation is 1. 6 m/s. The safety distance for assorted ‘stop times’ is given in the undermentioned tabular array: Time. MS
SAFETY DIISTANCE. MM
The ‘Stop time’ is the entire clip required to convey the moving parts at the
point- of-operation to halt. 30
10 Interlacing guards:
10. 1 Interlocking guard should be used on a machine as the first alternate if a fixed guard can non be used. 10. 2 The engagement system may be either mechanical. electrical or a combination of both. All parts of the engagement system should be every bit far as possible. it should be incorporated in the design of the machine for which this type of guarding is to be used. 10. 3 If operable. these guards should be designed for consecutive operations. They must guard the unsafe portion before the machinery can be operated. keep the guarding until the unsafe portion comes to rest and shall be failsafe. 10. 4 Hydraulic or pneumatic systems used to run certain types of machines. including imperativenesss. may be employed for meshing guards. In such instances. nevertheless. the guards have to be carefully designed to guarantee safety. 11 ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA FOR DESIGN OF MECHANICAL GUARDS:
11. 1 Data based on human organic structure measurings have an of import influence upon the proper design of machine guards. Reach is limited by the length of the arm. and in the instance of gap. by size of the fingers and manus every bit good. The distance a adult male can make find the minimal tallness of certain sorts of guards. or the minimal distance of barriers from the machines they are intended to fence. 11. 2 Dangerous portion that is within an upward range of 2. 60 m should be fenced. Any portion beyond this will be regarded as positionally safe in the absence of facts to the contrary. 31
11. 3 When a machine or portion of machinery is fenced with a barrier and regarded as safe by place. the barrier shall be of such building that no individual ? can make the unsafe parts from over or through the barrier ? And no unauthorised individual can come in the enclosure formed by the barrier. Equally far as operable the clear distance of the barrier from the machinery it is guarding shall non be more than 225 millimeter. 11. 4 Reach around barriers can be interrupted by supplying extra barrier and positionally safe country. The nearer the border of the barrier to the range curve. the less can the arm be dead set around it. The undermentioned figure explains the above statement:
11. 5 The safety distance through regular gaps in the guards are shown in the figure below:
12. Additional Safety Precautions:
12. 1 Where possible the full length of the pedal and its lever should be covered to forestall any portion from being struck by stuff. Side 34 panels prevent inadvertent operation through skiding the pes across the pedal and under the screen. The undermentioned figure illustrates the above point: 12. 2 In Two Hand Control device. to protect against inadvertent operation the buttons. they should be shrouded. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration 35
12. 3 The undermentioned figure shows the minimal distance between the two buttons in the two manus control devices. For buttons without guards the minimal distance between the buttons should non be less than 21. 6 inches ( 550mm ) . This distance can be less 21. 6 inches for push buttons which are equipped with guards. 36
13. Opening in Fixed Guards:
The following tabular array shows the distance of the fixed guard from the danger zone Distance of Guard From The Danger Line.
B in MM
Permissible Width of the Slotted Opening in the Guards.
A in MM
The undermentioned figure shows the representation of the above tabular array graphically 38
14. Automatic Guards:
14. 1 This type of guard should merely be used where neither fixed nor interlacing guards are operable to safeguard a peculiar danger country. Automatic guards should run to take any portion of a individual exposed to danger to a place of safety. 14. 2 Automatic guards should work independently of the operator and its action should reiterate every bit long as the machine is in gesture. 14. 3 The mechanism of automatic guards should be carefully adjusted in relation to the motion and physical features of the unsafe parts and should be often examined to guarantee that the precaution is decently maintained. 39
To discourse the basic safety guidelines and devices used for conveyer safety. 2. Hazards Associated with Conveyers:
a. Power transmittal moving-part jeopardies:
These jeopardies are associated chiefly with the power transmittal parts between the motor and the thrust membranophone. They include shafts. yokes. blocks and thrust belts. ironss and sprockets. Draging. oppressing or web on contact with revolving parts or pinch points can ensue in serious hurts. The undermentioned figure shows the assorted unsafe parts:
B. Hazards associated with other traveling parts of a conveyer: These are associated with the traveling conveyer belt and in-running shots when in contact with rollers and membranophones. These jeopardies can ensue in hurts to a worker from being dragged into in-running shots. or in scratch and clash Burnss from rubbing against the belt. or in hurts from being struck by a ruptured belt or a falling roller. c. Confinement country jeopardies:
Injuries result from shearing and oppressing between the burden. the conveyer belt and a fixed object. d. Moving-load jeopardies:
Injuries result from oppressing between the burden and a fixed object. Injuries can besides be caused by falling tonss or impacts with tonss. 3. Safe Guarding Principles:
A guard is a machine component that makes the danger zone unaccessible by insulating it. Guards on conveyer belts are required to be designed with operating conditions in head. The guards should fulfill the undermentioned demands:
I. They should be capable of defying the tonss to which they will be
subjected. II. These devices must non make extra jeopardies or tempt workers to short-circuit their usage. III. The dimensions and weight of movable guard constituents should to be designed to let for easy handling. 42
IV. It is preferred to hold articulated or hinged guards.
V. Guard remotion and reinstallation should be speedy and easy. VI. Ideally. guards should be self-locking.
In general there are three types of guards used for conveyer systems. These are listed as follows: 1 ) Fixed Guards:
A fixed guard is a lasting portion of the machine. It is non dependent upon traveling parts to execute its map. It is constructed of sheet metal. A fixed guard is normally preferred to all other types because of its permanency and comparative simpleness. Fixed guards are of farther following types:
I. Surrounding fixed guards:
This is a fixed guard that either wholly or partly surrounds the danger zone. These guards must widen beyond the in-running shots between the belts and rollers so as to do them unaccessible from above. below and from the terminals. The undermentioned figures show the facets of environing fixed guards: 43
two. Barrier guards:
Barrier guards do non wholly surround danger zones but instead restrict or prevent entree by their size and separation from the danger zone. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration of Barrier guard. 45
The tallness of the barrier from the land is adjusted as pre demand. The specific dimensions may be taken from the tabular array given below. Height of
( in millimeter )
Height of fixed barrier or protective structure* ( in millimeter )
Protective constructions less than 1000 millimeter in tallness are non included because they do non sufficiently restrict motion of the organic structure. 2 ) Engagement guards:
A guard equipped with an interlacing device should hold the undermentioned features. It should: 46
I. Cause the machine or the operation of its risky constituents to halt as it is somewhat opened. two. Make it impossible to get down the machine or to run its risky constituents for every bit long as it is non in topographic point. three. Not do the machine or its risky constituents to re-start once it is to the full restored to its topographic point. This type of guard may merely be used if the jeopardy disappears before a worker can entree the danger zone. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration of meshing guards: 3 ) Interlocked guard with guard lockup:
An interlocked guard equipped with a locking device should hold the undermentioned features. ? It should stay locked in topographic point for every bit long as the risky constituents are traveling. 47
? It should do it impossible to get down the machine every bit long as it is non in topographic point and reactivated. ? It should non do the machine to be restarted once it is restored to its topographic point and reactivated. This type of guard may be used when it is possible to entree the danger zone before the jeopardy has disappeared. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration of the interlocked guard with guard lockup: B. Deterrent Devicess:
These are devices ( other than guards ) that cut down the hazard of contact with a danger zone. They are frequently physical obstructions which. without wholly forestalling entree to a danger zone. cut down the possibility of entree. Deterrent devices include safety rails with mid tracks. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration of deterrent devices. 48
4. Safeguard Activities For Care:
The following tabular array shows the assorted activities performed along with the safeguard steps: SAFEGUARDS FOR MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES
Repairs: altering mechanical. electrical. hydraulic or pneumatic parts on conveyers or related accoutrements Lockout conveyer or related accoutrement.
Belt replacing and splice
Lockout and application of a written safety process
Welding and cutting
Lockout if conveyer is located under the welding country. Conveyor belts can be left running if hazard appraisal determines no danger to workers. Lockout if the unprotected danger zone is less than 2700mm from the work country. Adjustment and tantrum
It is authorized at all times. provided adjustment points are outside the danger zone. Lockout if adjustment points are inside the danger zone.
Greasing and oiling ( lubrication )
It is authorized at all times where lubricating oil points are outside the danger zone. Lockout if lubricating oil points are inside the danger zone. Housekeeping under and around conveyer ; disposal of stuff recovered on the belt
It is authorized at all times every bit long as the danger zone remains protected by a guard. Conveyor parts cleaning or care ( membranophones. rollers. human body. etc. ) Lockout processs are applicable.
Operation is authorized if housework can be done with an automated ( air or H2O ) jet. Inspection
Ocular and audile review is allowable at all times every bit long as the worker remains outside the danger zone. If the conveyer remains operational while the worker enters to do contact with a machine portion ( for illustration. to mensurate quivers ) . the point where the measurings are taken must non make a jeopardy to the worker. Lockout for all other instances.
Uncloging or unjamming
Lockout processs are applicable.
Care activities non covered above
Lockout processs are applicable at all times.
This criterion lays down the safety demands for ladders used for assorted occupations in industries including care and entree paths. 2. Categorizations of ladders:
Ladders are classified in the undermentioned types
2. 1. Built-Up Ladders/Fixed Ladder:
These are built on the occupation to its peculiar demands. They are fastened to the construction in a fixed place. firmly held in topographic point. 2. 2. Portable Ladders of Rigid Construction:
These are used as and where required to give entree to scaffolds or platforms. in the industry to any needed location for fixs or care. Portable ladders are farther classified as: 2. 2. 1. Stock ladders:
These ladders have merely one subdivision. in which the side rails may be either parallel or distribute wider at the underside. They are lean-to-ladders. that is. their upper terminals are supported by tilting against a wall or any other stiff support. 52
2. 2. 2. Extension ladders:
These lean-to-ladders have two or three subdivisions with proper locking system. The upper subdivisions can skid in ushers or brackets. These guards or braces are so ordered that the length of the ladder can be varied as required between the to the full extended place and the to the full retracted place of the ladder. 2. 2. 3. Measure ladders:
These are self-supporting ladders hinged near the upper terminal. When such a ladder is arranged for usage. it is in the signifier of missive ‘A’ . Wide level stairss are secured to the side rails which form one of the inclining sides of ‘A’ . The other aslant side acts as a prance to back up the ladder. 3. Ladder
Metal ladder may be either of steel following with IS 1977: 1975 or of aluminium metal following with the suited class of IS 617: . l975. 4. Ladder Construction:
4. 1. General Requirements:
4. 1. 1. All ladders shall be constructed to transport their intended tonss safely. 4. 1. 2. Side rails of metal ladders shall be of sufficient cross-section to forestall inordinate warp when in usage. 53
4. 1. 3. Ladders which are to stay as a portion of the lasting construction shall fulfill any local. province or municipal bye-laws which may be applicable. 4. 1. 4. Safety places. whipping or other effectual agencies shall be used to avoid danger of stealing. 4. 2. Built-Up/Fixed Ladders:
4. 2. 1. All surfaces of the ladder shall be planed. free of matchwoods and border of manus tracks used shall be bevelled. 4. 2. 2. Rung spacing shall be unvarying and non over 300 millimeters on centres. Rungs shall be recessed at least 12 millimeter into tracks. 4. 2. 3. Ladders shall non transcend 6m in length.
4. 2. 4. Top and underside of each built-up ladder shall be firmly fastened. 4. 3. Portable Ladders:
4. 3. 1. Stock Ladders:
4. 3. 1. 1. The overall length of stock ladders shall non transcend 10 m. 4. 3. 1. 2. The breadth between side tracks at the base shall in no instance be less than 290 millimeter for ladders up to 3 m in length. 4. 3. 1. 3. For longer lengths. this width shall be increased at least 6 millimeter for each extra 0. 3 m of length. 4. 3. 1. 4. The metal rounds shall be made of solid unit of ammunition steel rods. steel pipe or angle subdivisions and firmly fastened to the side tracks by concentrating. bolting or welding. 54
4. 3. 1. 5. Metallic element paces shall be flanged downward non less than 50 millimeters at each terminal and secured to each side rail by two bolts or studs. 4. 3. 1. 6. Safety type paces may besides be used with angle supports at each terminal. 4. 3. 1. 7. All bolts and studs shall hold a close tantrum in the holes prepared to have
them. 4. 3. 2. Measure Ladders:
4. 3. 2. 1. The overall tallness of measure ladders shall non transcend 6m. 4. 3. 2. 2. Measure ladders higher than 3 thousand shall be equipped with rope or concatenation placed halfway between the automatic spreader and the underside of ladder. 4. 3. 2. 3. Stairss shall be secured to the side rails by agencies of nails. or prison guards and reinforced with tie rods between side tracks under alternate stairss. 4. 3. 2. 4. Ladders shall be provided with an automatic lockup device or spreader to keep it in an unfastened place. 4. 3. 2. 5. The minimal breadth between side tracks at top measure. inside to inside. shall be non less than 300 millimeter with a spread of 25 millimeters for each 300 millimeter of length of dispersed ladder. 4. 3. 3. Extension Ladders:
4. 3. 3. 1. The overall length of the drawn-out ladder shall non transcend 18 m. 4. 3. 3. 2. The sliding subdivision shall non transcend two in figure. 55
4. 3. 3. 3. Locks and ushers shall be of such design and building as to do the extension ladder equal in strength to a ladder of equal length constructed of uninterrupted side tracks. 5. Cages for Fixed Ladders:
5. 1. Cages must non widen less than 27 inches ( 68 centimeter ) . or more than 30 inches ( 76 centimeter ) from the center line of the measure or round and must non be less than 27 inches ( 68 centimeter ) broad. 5. 2. The interior side of coops must be clear of projections.
5. 3. Horizontal sets must be spaced at intervals non more than 4 pess ( 1. 2 m ) apart measured from center line to centerline. 5. 4. Vertical bars must be spaced at intervals non more than 9. 5 inches ( 24 centimeter ) . measured center line to centerline. 5. 5. Bottoms of coops must 7 pess ( 2. 1 m ) from the underside of the ladder. 6. Inspection and Testing:
6. 1. Metallic element ladders shall be inspected at least one time in three months and all parts checked for wear. corrosion and structural failure. 6. 2. All ladders shall be carefully inspected if damaged during usage. 7. Care:
Metallic rounds shall be cleaned to forestall accretion of stuffs which may
cut down the non-slipping belongingss. All adjustments shall be carefully checked. 56
To standardise the dimensions of staircases.
2. General Guidelines For Stairss:
2. 1. Stairss are used for accessing highs above 4m.
2. 2. The stepss should fulfill the undermentioned demand:
2. 2. 1. Paces and risers should be of unvarying breadth and tallness in any one flight. 2. 2. 2. Minimum breadth of stepss should be 1m.
2. 2. 3. There should be no unbroken perpendicular rise of more than 4m. 2. 2. 4. The maximal angle of acclivity should be 50 grades.
2. 2. 5. Step should inveigh on all unfastened sides.
2. 2. 6. Stairss should hold manus tracks on all enclosed sides.
2. 2. 7. Stairss should hold standard railings and toe-boards on all landings. 3. Care:
The steps should be cleaned to forestall accretion of stuffs which may cut down the non-slipping belongingss. All adjustments shall be carefully checked. 57
Ramps or Gangways
To standardise the dimensions of inclines and gateways
2. General Guidelines for Ramps and Gatewaies:
2. 1. Ramps or gangways are advantageous for entree of scaffold platforms from lifting towers or from next floor degrees. but are non operable where there is appreciable difference in degrees. 2. 2. Ramps and gateways should fulfill the undermentioned demands: 2. 2. 1. They should be built to supply strength equal to that specified for scaffold constructions. 2. 2. 2. If the incline or track is 1. 5 m or more above the land or floor degree. the unfastened sides should be protected by standard railings and toe boards. 2. 2. 3. The incline of the incline shall non transcend 2 in 3.
2. 2. 4. If the incline is more than 1 in 4. proper pes holds shall be provided by agencies of stepping laths of minimal size 50 Ten 30mm at intervals non transcending 45 centimeter. 3. Care:
The gateways or inclines should be cleaned to forestall accretion of stuffs which may cut down the non-slipping belongingss. All adjustments shall be carefully checked. 58
To discourse the assorted safety criterions related to robot/automated equipment’s. 2. Type and Classification of Robots:
2. 1. Industrial automatons are available commercially in a broad scope of sizes. forms. and constellations. 2. 2. They are designed and fabricated with different design constellations and a different figure of axes or grades of freedom. These factors of a robot’s design influence its working envelope ( the volume of working or making infinite ) . 2. 3. The undermentioned figure shows the different types of automaton design constellation: 60
3. Servo and Non-servo Control:
3. 1. All industrial automatons are either servo or non-servo controlled. 3. 2. Servo automatons are controlled through the usage of detectors that continually monitor the robot’s axes and associated constituents for place and speed. 3. 3. This feedback is compared to pre-taught information which has been programmed and stored in the robot’s memory. 3. 4. Non-servo automatons do non hold the feedback capableness. and their axes are controlled through a system of mechanical Michigans and bound switches. 4. Types of Path Generated:
4. 1. Industrial automatons can be programmed from a distance to execute their required and preprogrammed operations with different types of waies generated through different control techniques. 4. 2. The three different types of waies generated are Point-to-Point Path. Controlled Path. and Continuous Path. 4. 3. These waies are farther explained as follows:
4. 3. 1. Point-to-Point Way:
4. 3. 1. 1. Robots programmed and controlled in this mode are programmed to travel from one distinct point to another within the robot’s working envelope. 4. 3. 1. 2. In the automatic manner of operation. the exact way taken by the automaton will change somewhat due to fluctuations in speed. joint geometries. and point spacial locations. 61
4. 3. 1. 3. This difference in waies is hard to foretell and hence can make a possible safety jeopardy to forces and equipment. 4. 3. 2. Controlled Way:
4. 3. 2. 1. This way or manner of motion ensures that the terminal of the robot’s arm will follow a predictable ( controlled ) way and orientation as the automaton travels from point to indicate. 4. 3. 2. 2. The coordinate transmutations required for this hardware direction are calculated by the robot’s control system computing machine. 4. 3. 2. 3. Observations that result from this type of programming are less likely to show a jeopardy to forces and equipment. 4. 3. 3. Continuous Way:
4. 3. 3. 1. A automaton whose way is controlled by hive awaying a big figure or close sequence of spacial points in memory during a teaching sequence is a uninterrupted way controlled automaton. 4. 3. 3. 2. During this clip. and while the automaton is being moved. the co-ordinate points in infinite of each axis are continually monitored on a fixed clip base. e. g. . 60 or more times per second. and placed into the control system’s computing machine memory. 62
4. 3. 3. 3. When the automaton is placed in the automatic manner of operation. the plan is replayed from memory and a duplicate way is generated. 5. Robot Components:
5. 1. Industrial automatons have four major constituents: the mechanical unit. power beginning. control system. and tooling which are shown in the undermentioned figure. 5. 2. These constituents are explained as follows:
5. 2. 1. Mechanical Unit of measurement:
5. 2. 1. 1. The robot’s manipulative arm is the mechanical unit. 63
5. 2. 1. 2. This mechanical unit is besides comprised of a fancied structural frame with commissariats for back uping mechanical linkage and articulations. ushers. actuators ( additive or rotary ) . control valves. and detectors. 5. 2. 1. 3. The physical dimensions. design. and weight-carrying ability depend on application demands. 5. 2. 2. Power Beginnings:
5. 2. 2. 1. Energy is provided to assorted robot actuators and their accountants
as pneumatic. hydraulic. or electrical power. 5. 2. 2. 2. The robot’s thrusts are normally mechanical combinations powered by these types of energy. and the choice is normally based upon application demands. For illustration. pneumatic power ( low-pressure air ) is used by and large for low weight transporting automatons. 5. 2. 2. 3. Hydraulic power transmittal ( hard-hitting oil ) is normally used for medium to high force or weight applications. or where smoother gesture control can be achieved than with pneumatics. 5. 2. 2. 4. Consideration should be given to possible jeopardies of fires from leaks if petroleum-based oils are used. 5. 2. 2. 5. Electrically powered automatons are the most prevailing in industry. Either AC or DC electrical power is used to provide energy to electromechanical motor-driven actuating mechanisms and their several control systems. 64
5. 2. 2. 6. Gesture control is much better. and in an exigency an electrically powered automaton can be stopped or powered down more safely and faster than those with either pneumatic or hydraulic power. 6. Control System:
6. 1. Either subsidiary computing machines or embedded microprocessors are used for practically all control of industrial automatons today. These perform all of the needed computational maps every bit good as interface with and command associated detectors. grippers. tooling. and other associated peripheral equipment. 6. 2. The control system performs the necessary sequencing and memory maps for online detection. ramification. and integrating of other equipment. 6. 3. Scheduling of the accountants can be done online or at distant off-line control Stationss with electronic informations transportation of plans by cassette. floppy phonograph record. or telephone modem. 6. 4. Self-diagnostic capableness for trouble-shooting and care greatly reduces automaton system downtime. 6. 5. Some automaton accountants have sufficient capacity. in footings of computational ability. memory capacity and input-output capableness to function besides as system accountants and manage many other machines and procedures. 65
7. Robot Scheduling:
7. 1. A plan consists of single bid stairss which province either the place or map to be performed. along with other informational informations such as velocity. dwell or hold times. sample input device. activate end product
device. execute. etc. 7. 2. When set uping a automaton plan. it is necessary to set up a physical or geometrical relationship between the automaton and other equipment or work to be serviced by the automaton. 7. 3. To set up these coordinate points exactly within the robot’s working envelope. it is necessary to command the automaton manually and physically learn the co-ordinate points. 7. 4. To make this every bit good as determine other functional scheduling information. three different learning or programming techniques are used which are listed as follows: 7. 4. 1. Lead-Through Scheduling:
7. 4. 1. 1. This method of programming utilizations a proprietary Teach pendent ( the robot’s control is placed in a “teach” manner ) . which allows trained forces physically to take the automaton through the coveted sequence of events by triping the appropriate pendent button or switch. 7. 4. 1. 2. Position informations and functional information are “taught” to the automaton. and a new plan is written. The Teach pendent can be the exclusive beginning by which a plan is established. or it may be used in concurrence with an extra scheduling console and/or the robot’s accountant. 66
7. 4. 1. 3. When utilizing this technique of programming. the individual executing the Teach map can be within the robot’s working envelope. with operational safeguarding devices deactivated or inoperative. 7. 4. 1. 4. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration of the procedure: 7. 4. 2. Walk-Through Scheduling:
7. 4. 2. 1. A individual making the instruction has physical contact with the automaton arm and really additions control and walk the robot’s arm through the coveted places within the working envelope. 7. 4. 2. 2. During this clip. the robot’s accountant is scanning and hive awaying co-ordinate values on a fixed clip footing. When the automaton is subsequently placed in the automatic manner of operation. these values and other functional information are replayed and the plan tally as it was taught. 67
7. 4. 2. 3. With the walk-through method of programming. the individual making the instruction is in a potentially risky place because the operational safeguarding devices are deactivated or inoperative. 7. 4. 2. 4. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration of this procedure: 7. 4. 3. Off-line Scheduling:
7. 4. 3. 1. The programming set uping the needed sequence of functional and needed positional stairss is written on a distant computing machine console. 7. 4. 3. 2. Since the console is distant from the automaton and its accountant. the written plan has to be transferred to the robot’s accountant and precise positional informations established to accomplish the existent co-ordinate information for the automaton and other equipment. 68
7. 4. 3. 3. The plan can be transferred straight or by phonograph record. After the plan has been wholly transferred to the robot’s accountant. either the lead-through or walk-through technique can be used for obtaining existent positional co-ordinate information for the robot’s axes. 7. 4. 3. 4. The undermentioned figure shows an illustration of this scheduling system: 7. 5. When programming automatons with any of the three techniques discussed supra. it is by and large required that the plan be verified and little alterations in positional information made. 7. 6. This process is called plan touch-up and is usually carried out in the Teach manner of operation. The coder manually leads or walks the automaton through the programmed stairss. There are possible jeopardies if safeguarding devices are deactivated or inoperative. 69
8. Hazards associated with Automatons:
8. 1. The operational features of automatons can be significantly different from other machines and equipment. Automatons are capable of high-energy ( fast or powerful ) motions through a big volume of infinite even beyond the basal dimensions of the automaton. 8. 2. The form and induction of motion of the automaton is predictable if the point being “worked” and the environment are held changeless. Any alteration to the object being worked ( i. e. a physical theoretical account alteration ) or the environment can impact the programmed motions. 8. 3. The undermentioned figure shows the work envelope of the automaton. 70
8. 4. Some care and scheduling forces may be required to be within the restricted envelope while power is available to actuators. The restricted envelope of the automaton can overlap a part of the restricted envelope of other automatons or work zones of other industrial machines and related equipment. 8. 5. Due to the above listed belongings of automatons. a worker can be hit by one automaton while working on another. trapped between them or peripheral equipment. or hit by winging objects released by the gripper. 8. 6. A automaton with two or more resident plans can happen the current operating plan mistakenly naming another bing plan with different runing parametric quantities such as speed. acceleration. or slowing. or place within the robot’s restricted envelope.
The happening of this might non be predictable by care or scheduling forces working with the automaton. 8. 7. The different type of accidents happening due to automatons are listed as follows: 8. 7. 1. Impact or Collision Accidents: Unpredicted motions. constituent malfunctions. or unannounced plan alterations related to the robot’s arm or peripheral equipment can ensue in contact accidents. 8. 7. 2. Suppression and Traping Accidents: A worker’s limb or other organic structure portion can be trapped between a robot’s arm and other peripheral equipment. or the person may be physically driven into and crushed by other peripheral equipment. 71
8. 7. 3. Mechanical Part Accidents: The dislocation of the robot’s thrust constituents. tooling or end-effector. peripheral equipment. or its power beginning is a mechanical accident. The release of parts. failure of gripper mechanism. or the failure of end-effector power tools are a few types of mechanical failures. 8. 7. 4. Other Accidents: Other accidents can ensue from working with automatons. Equipment that supplies robot power and control represents possible electrical and pressurized fluid jeopardies. Ruptured hydraulic lines could make unsafe hard-hitting cutting watercourse or floging hose jeopardies. Environmental accidents from arc flash. metal splatter. dust. electromagnetic. or radio-frequency intervention can besides happen. In add-on. equipment and power overseas telegrams on the floor present tripping jeopardies. 9. Beginnings of Hazards:
The assorted beginnings of jeopardy are listed as follows:
9. 1. Human Mistake:
9. 1. 1. Built-in anterior scheduling. interfacing activated peripheral equipment. or linking unrecorded input-output detectors to the microprocessor or a peripheral can do unsafe. unannounced motion or action by the automaton from human mistake. 9. 1. 2. The wrong activation of the “teach
pendant” or control panel is a frequent human mistake. 72
9. 1. 3. The greatest job. nevertheless. is over acquaintance with the robot’s excess gestures so that an single topographic points himself in a risky place while programming the automaton or executing care on it. 9. 2. Control Mistakes:
9. 2. 1. Intrinsic mistakes within the control system of the automaton. mistakes in package. electromagnetic intervention. and radio frequence intervention are control mistakes. 9. 2. 2. In add-on. these mistakes can happen due to mistakes in the hydraulic. pneumatic. or electrical sub-controls associated with the automaton or automaton system. 9. 3. Unauthorized Entree:
9. 3. 1. Entry into a robot’s safeguarded country is risky because the individual involved may non be familiar with the precautions in topographic point or their activation position. 9. 4. Mechanical Failure:
9. 4. 1. Operating plans may non account for cumulative mechanical portion failure. and faulty or unexpected operation may happen. 9. 5. Environmental Beginnings:
9. 5. 1. Electromagnetic or radio-frequency intervention ( transeunt signals ) should be considered to exercise an unwanted influence on robotic operation and increase the possible for hurt to any individual working in the country. Solutions to 73
environmental jeopardies should be documented prior to equipment start-up. 9. 6. Power Systems:
9. 6. 1. Pneumatic. hydraulic or electrical power beginnings that have misfunctioning control or transmittal elements in the automaton power system can interrupt electrical signals to the control and/or power-supply lines. 9. 6. 2. Fire hazards are increased by electrical overloads or by usage of flammable hydraulic oil. Electrical daze and release of stored energy from roll uping devices besides can be risky to forces. 9. 7. Improper Installation:
9. 7. 1. The design. demands and layout of equipment. public-service corporations and
installations of a automaton or automaton system. if inadequately done. can take to built-in jeopardies. 10. Control Devices:
The undermentioned features are indispensable for a control device. 10. 1. The chief control panel is locat