# Equilibrium

 Kc
 Ratio of ([products]/[reactants]) = a constant at a given T
 Kp
 Kp=Kc(RT)Δn(gas) Δn(gas)=mol gaseous products- mol gaseous reactants
 Reaction Quotient (Q)
 A ratio of terms for a given reation conststing of product concentration multiplied together and divided by reatant concentrations multiplied together, each raised to the power of their balancing coefficient =([C]c X [D]d)/([A]a x[B]b) for aA+bB→cC+dD
 Reaction quotient (Q)
 For nonequilibrium conditions, the expression having the same form as Kc or Kp is called the
 Kequilibrium
 =kfoward/kreverse
 Q
 Reaction proceeds to tright as written to achieve equilibrium
 Q>K
 Reaction proceeds to left as written to achieve eqilibrium
 Arrhenius acid
 A substance that has H in its formula and dissociates in water to yield H3O+
 Arrhenius base
 A substance that has OH in its fomula and dissociates in water to yield OH–
 Acid dissociation constant (Ka)
 An equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid (HA) in H2O to yield the conjgate base (A–) and H3O+ Let us write you a custom essay sample on Equilibrium For Only \$13.90/page ORDER NOW   Ka=[H3O+][A–]/[HA]
 Le Chatelier’s Principle
 A disturbed system undergoes a net reaction to reattain equilibrium
 Bronsted-Lowry acid
 A proton donor, any species that donates an H+ ion
 Bronsted Lowry base
 A proton acceptor, any species that accepts the H+ ion
 conjugate acid
 formed when a base accepts a H+ from an acid
 conjugate base
 of an acid is the acid minus the proton it has donated
 Buffer range
 The pH range over which a buffer acts effectively; related to the relative component concentrations
 Buffer capacity
 A measure of the ability of a buffer to resist a change in pH; related to the total concentrations and relative proportiond of buffer components
 Acid-Base indicator
 A species whose color is different in acid and in base, which is used to monitor the equivalence point of a titration or the pH of a solution
 pKa
 Kw
 Kw= [H3O+][OH–]=1.0×10-14
 pH
 pH= -log[H3O+]
 pOH
 pOH= -log[OH–]
 pKw
 pKw= pH+pOH =14.00
 Amphoteric
 a substance that could act as both an acid and a base
 Common ion effect
 The shift in the position of an ionic equilbirium away from formation of an ion that is caused by the addition (or prescence) of that ion.
 Qsp; Ksp
 No precipitate will form
 Qsp;Ksp
 A precipitate will form
 [OH-]
 pOH=10-pOH
 Kf (metal-ligand complex)
 Kf= [MLN]/([M][L]N) usually ;;1
 Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
 =pKa+ log([salt]/[acid])
 Kh
 Kh= Kw/Ka or Kw/Kb