Equations and Theories

law conservation of mass
total of mass and energy stay the same in any charge
law of multiple proportions
when different compounds are formed by using the same elements, different masses combine in a particular whole number ratio.
dalton’s atomic theory
atoms are made of indivisible particles
chemical reactions involve rearrangements of atoms
atoms of diff. elements combine to form compounds
aristole known for ?
all substance is made of 4 elemnts,
water earth fire wind
smallest particle of an ELEMENT
who made cathode ray tube?
what does tube do?
what is he known for ?
J.J thompson
air is pumped out
plum pudding model, discovered electrons
Ernest Rutherford
discovered postitive piece in center, nucleus
electrons would surround it
atom is empty
neutron is same mass as … ?
alpha particle
positively charged pieces
shot at florescent screen it glows
deflected by positive pieces.
nucleus in weight.
small volume, big mass and density
the atomic number says
the number of protons
mass number is…
protons +neutrons
account for most of mass
atoms of same element can have diff number of NEUTRONS
CHANGES mass number
how to get average
multiply atomic mass number (isotope) by percentage abundance then add them together
study of light led to
quantum mechanical model
speed of light
3.00 x 10^8 m/s
v =
lambda =
frequency is expressed in what units
seconds or hertz
equation for frequency
speed of light=wavelength(frequency)
emission spectra or photoemission
when light is given off by electron falling from high energy level to low energy level.
metric unit of energy ?
equation to find wavelength
frequency = wavelength (speed of light)
equation to find energy of photon
E=planks constant (frequency)
model that only had hydrogens
bohrs model
equation to find wavelength of a particle
lambda = planks constant / mass(frequency)
Heisenburg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to know exactly the location and velocity of a particle.
bohrs model
Planetery model
amount of energy sperate one level from another
move around like planets
what is quanta
quna is the amount of energy needed to move energy levels
principle quantum number
energy level
atomic orbital
like electron cloud
where you would find electron
aufbau principle
electrons enter the lowest energy first
Pauli exclusion principle
at most 1 electron per orbital- different spins
hunds rule
when electrons occupy orbitals they cannot pair up until they have to

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