EOC Study Guide 1 (Civil War & Reconstruction) & 2 (Progressivism)

Popular Sovereignty
a doctrine in political theory that government is created by & subject to the will of the people

Uncle Tom’s Cabin
An anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852; laid the groundwork for the Civil War

Bleeding Kansas
At the heart of the Free/Slave conflict was the question of whether Kansas would enter Union as a Free State or Slave State

John Brown
An American abolitionist who believed arms was the only way to overthrow in institution of slavery in the U.S.

Anaconda Plan
plan that emphasized the blockade of Southern ports, & called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two

Black Codes
restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments

Thirteenth Amendment
1865; freed all slaves, abolished slavery

Fourteenth Amendment
full citizenship to all native-born Americans. including former slaves & immigrants

Fifteenth Amendment
no one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave

Kansas-Nebraska Act
created in the territories of Kansas & Nebraska; allowed white male settlers in those territories to decide through popular sovereignty if they would allow slavery

Ku Klux Klan
used terrorist tactics to suppress & scare black people

Ostend Manifesto
document written in 1854 that described rationale for US to purchase Cuba from Span & that US should declare war if Spain refused

Radical Republicans
radicals strongly opposed to slavery during & after the Civil War

a system in which the landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on that land

Westward Expansion
massive immigration towards the western portion of America

Dawes Severalty Act
adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the division of land allotments for individual Indians

Chinese Exclusion Act
laws forbidding the immigration of Chinese laborers into the U.S. from 1882 to 1892

Transcontinental Railroad
a train route across the U.S. finished in 1869

Business Monopolies
exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity

Cross of Gold Speech
speech that decried the gold standard, concluding with “you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” Bryan’s address helped catapult him to the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination; considered one of the greatest political speeches in American history

Granger Laws
the main goal of the Grange was to regulate rising fare prices of railroad & grain elevator companies after the Civil War

Homestead Act of 1862
Gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a “homestead,” at little or no coast. originally consisted of grants totaling 160 acres.

a political doctrine in which one sides with “the people” against “the elite.”

William Jennings Bryan
an enemy of banks & the gold standard. “Free Silver”; it put more money in the hands of the people at large

Gilded Age
a time between the 1870s & 1900 that contained a lot of growth in America

Political machines
a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters & businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts

party bosses
the leader of a political machine that makes sure there are enough votes to remain in control of the city, county or state

a relationship whereby property is held by one party for the benefit of another

robber barons
an American capitalist who acquired a fortune in the late nineteenth century by ruthless means

captains of industry
a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in some way

Jacob Riis
social documentary photographer

Upton Sinclair
author of The Jungle, which exposed issues in the meat packing industry

abstinence from alcohol

legal act of prohibiting the manufacture, storage in barrels, bottles & transpiration & sale of alcohol/alcoholic beverages

child labor
the use of children in business or industry

Haymarket Riot (1886)
a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day. an unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting

Henry Flagler
founder of Standard Oil, the Florida East Coast Railway, and known as the father of Miami, Florida

Ida Tarbell
a teacher & author who is known as a “muckracker” & author of The History of the Standard Oil Company

Knights of Labor
the largest & one of the most important American labor organization of the 1880s

labor unions
an organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect & further their rights and interests

to search for & expose real or alleged corruption, scandal, or the like, especially in politics

Pullman strike
Industrialist George Pullman laid off workers & lowered wages, & did not reduce rents; workers called for a strike. they had not formed a union.

settlement houses
provided services such as daycare, education & healthcare to improve the lives of the poor in these areas

Sherman Antitrust Act
the first federal statute to limit cartels & monopolies

social gospel movement
applied Christian ethics to social problems. especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, & the danger of war

suffrage movement
movement for women to have the right to vote & stand for office

the movement from rural & suburban areas into urban & city areas