Environmental Science Chapter 8 Study Guide

Industrial Revolution
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s.
Infant Mortality
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
Growth Rate
The amount by which a population’s size changes in a given time.
Study of human populations.
Population size
The number of individuals in a population.
Population density
Number of individuals in a population per unit area
Population growth
An increase in population over a period of time.
Population distribution
The way the population is spread out over an area.
Fertility rate
Measures the average number of children that women is expected to have in a lifetime.
Replacement Fertility
The rate at which women would have only enough children to replace themselves and their partner.
Age structures
A graph that and can help predict if a population is growing rapidly, growing slowly, or not growing at all.
Sex Ratios
The ratio of males to females in a given population.
Demographic transition
Change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.
Ecological footprint
The amount of space needed to support a given population an its combined consumption and use of resources.
Wealth gap
The difference between the wealthiest and the poorest people in a population.