Environmental Chemistry

primary pollutant
.one that is emitted into the atmosphere directly form the source of the pollutant andretains the same chemcial form
S+O2 –> SO2
secondary pollutant
one thatt is formed by atmospheric reactions of primary emission. Undergo a chemical change once they reach the atmosphere.
2SO2 +O2 –> 2SO3
primary air pollutants
.carbon monxides
.nitrogen oxides
.sulfuric oxides
.unburned hydrocarbons
NOx health effects
irritation of eyes/nose
SOx health effects
irritate respiratory tract
Particulate health effects
irritate mucus membranes
CO health effects
metabolic posioning
Catalytic Converters
.By having a honey comb of a rhodium/platinum catalyst through which the exhaust gases pass. This provides a surface upon which a number of different reactions take place involving primary polluters.
.First there are the oxidation reactions.Unburned hydrocarbons react with O2 to form CO2 and water
.Reduction of NOx. This helps gets rid of some of the carbon monoxide.

2NO + 2 CO –> N2 + 2 CO2

Primary and secondary pollutants produced by automobile
.photochemical smog
.same symbol different subscript
.varient of a substance consisting of only one type of atom.
an organic compount that contains C,Cl, and F.
.used as refrigerants,and airconditioners.
Evidence for ozone depletion
.an increase in temperature
.Increase in precipitation
.Melting glaciers
Evidence for ozone depletion
.an increase in temperature
.Increase in precipitation
.Melting glaciers
Primary and secondary pollutants produced by automobile
.photochemical smog
Pollutants that cause rapid ozone depletion
.Nitrous oxide
.Produced naturally in the soil by the microbacteria
.Are broken up by UV and in the stratosphere chlorine atoms broke off the parent molecule and then reacted with ozone.
CCl2F2+ UV –> CClF2 + Cl
Cl+O3–> ClO + O2
Environmental effects of depletion
.skin cancer
.crop fallure
Alternatives to CFCs
Green house effect
.earth atmosphere radian from sun comes in
.the longer the wave lenth the longer the frequency
.gren house gases will absorb wave lengths and reaterated back to earth
Main greenhouse gases
.Carbon dioxide
.Water vapor
.nitrogen oxides
Acid rain
.any rain with pH less than 5.6

SO2 + H20–> H2SO3
2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O–> 2H2SO4

Environmental effects of acid rain
.irritates eye
.fish can’t stand the ph levels
CaCO3 + H2SO4+H2O+CO2
.leaching of soil is disrrupeted and repaces ions
Methods of controlling acid rain
.low sulfur cleaner buring coal
.Converting of dirty high sulfur coal to celan buring SNG
.Reduction of emission of Nox from automobiles
Carbon Bed method
.uses activeated carbon black
.has the ability to readily absorb orgainc chemical from the waste waters
.distilss water by flashing a portion of the water into stemam in multiple sategs of what are essentially heat exhangers
Reverse Osmosis
occurs when the water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher concentration.
Factors that influence water quality
.color of water
Anerobic decomposition
requires oxygen for the necessary reaction to take place
Methane H2SO4
Anderobic decompostion
does not require oxygen for the necessary reaction to take place
increase in the limiting nutrient of cyanobacteria in an aquatic ecosystem.
Nutrients that affect growht of aquatic plants
Phosphurus and Nitrogen
Chlorine Advantages and Disadvantages
.Kills fast
.forms carcinogenic compounds
.does not kill viruses
Ozone advantages and disadvantages
.fewer dangerous by production
.taste and odor less
.laste a short time
.not mobile
Primary Treatment
.separate solids from liquids
action of polymers to form bridges between the flocs an bind the particles into large clumps
Secondary Treatment
Activated sludge
micropes that eat away organic sludge
Tertiary Treatment
send H20 through carbonal
Chemical Precipitation
wastewater treatment chemicals are added to form particles which settle and remove contaminants.
waersoulble salt build up in the root zones of plants, blocking movemtn of water and nutrients into plant tissue
Nutrient depletion
.crop rotation
.five percent of organic matter in soil
.humus(fully decayed soil)
.partically decayed soil
physical function of SOM
.products of metabolism
.helps retain same mosture and plant can continue to grow
Biological funtions of SOM
.provides key nutrients for plants like Phosphorus, Sulpur and Nitrogen

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