The orally of the word ‘archetype’ comes from Greek archer- ‘primitive’ + typos ‘a model’. It means an original model or a recurrent motif in literature. It is a basic model from which copies are made; therefore a prototype. In general terms, the abstract idea of a class of things which represents the most typical and essential characteristics shared by the class; thus a paradigm or exemplar. An archetype is atavistic and universal (Escudo, 1982, p. 55). The term archetype stands for a recurring pattern of experience which can be identified in works of literature and human sciences.
These can be identified in the form 133 of recurring actions, images, metaphors, analogues, figurative language, etc. These archetypes are the reflections of primitive, universal thoughts which are essentially poetic. They are the primordial images which reside deep in our psyche, and which seek an outlet in works of art (Anagram, 2006, p. 142). The Swiss psychologist Carl Jung used the term archetype to refer to the experiences of our ancestors which get lodged in what he called the collective unconscious of the whole race.
By collective unconscious is meant, the psychic disposition shaped by the forces of reedier. The contents of the collective unconscious are the archetypes. These buried experiences seek expression in myths as well as in literature (Anagram, 2006, p. 142). Archetypes in “To His Coy Mistress” Superficially a love poem, “To His Coy Mistress” is, in a deeper sense, a poem about time, the poem concerns time more than love. As such, it is concerned with immortality, a fundamental motif and pattern in myth.
Thus, the poem includes archetypes of time and immortality (Aphasia, 2000, p. 228). Structurally, the poem constructed in three sections. Section one begins with: ‘Had we but world enough, and time’, in other words, ‘if we had lots of time then your reluctance to sleep with me would not be a problem’. Section two opens with: ‘But at my back I always hear/ Time’s winged chariot hurrying near;’, which suggests that We do not have endless time because I can hear time hard on my heels’.
Section three starts with: ‘Now therefore, while the youthful hue’, suggesting that the narrator has the solution in terms of how they should handle the situation: We haven’t got lots of time so you had better sleep with me Marvels narrator tries to explain to the object of is desire that, had they endless time, her reluctance to relinquish her virginity would be quite all right, and that he would indeed spend a great lengths of time wooing her.
Copyright O Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture However, he explains, this is not the case, and she should comply with his wish to consummate their relationship because time is passing quickly and if they fail to take the opportunity to enjoy such pleasures now they will miss out on them forever (Miller, 2001, p. 1 14). The poem is an illustration of the phrase of ‘carper diem’ meaning “seize the day’, is a Latin phrase from Horse’s Odes (p. 1. X’) which has become the name of every common literary motif, especially in lyric poetry. The lover emphasizes that life is short and time is fleeting in order to enjoin the beloved-who is often a reluctant virgin–to make the most of present pleasures (Abram, 1971, p. 20). In the first two sections, we encounter inversion or a rejection of traditional conceptions of human immortality. The first section is an ironic presentation of the “escape from time” to some appraisal state in which lovers may dally for an eternity.
But such a state of perfect, eternal lists is a foolish delusion, as the speaker suggests in his subjunctive “Had we put world enough; and time,” and in his description of love as some kind of monstrous vegetable growing slowly to infinite size in the archetype garden, which indicates salvation in dream and mind: “My vegetable love should grow Vaster than empires; and more slow. ” (Queering, Labor, Morgan, Rescan, & Willingham, 2005, p. 200) The opening line of the poem, reveals the theme of time and space continuum, which lies throughout the poem.
The first line can be paraphrased as follows: “If we had enough world and time” since it is a conditional entente, it must be an impossible condition. The motif of time and space shows that the poem in a philosophical consideration of time and eternity. There are many time motifs like, “before the Flood, till the conversion of the Jews, an hundred years, two an age at least, the last age, etc” (Aphasia, 2000, p. 229). Suggesting what might happen if the two lovers had all the time in the world, and to make his point the poet imagines a ludicrously extended period of courtship (Stephen, 1984, p. 03). In dramatic contrast, the second section presents the desert archetype in terms of another kind of time, therapeutic time. This is the time governed by the inexorable laws of nature, the sun archetype imaged in time’s winged chariot, the laws of decay, death and physical extinction. It is as extreme in its philosophical realism as the first section is in its impracticable idealization. It recognizes that humanity is mortal, and that time is always eating away at a person’s life, bringing him nearer to death (Stephen, 1984, p. 04). For the first time we feel that Marvel is being, in quite an ordinary sense, ‘serious’. This seriousness introduces a sober note, which prepares us for the impressive solemnity of the next four lines: But at my back I always hear Time’s winged chariot hurrying near, And yonder all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. Time is always catching up, and the eternity which faces the poet and his mistress is not an eternity in which he can love and praise her, but the Vast eternity that stretches after death.
The nature of this eternity, so very different from the near-eternity extravagantly conjured up in the first section, is superbly suggested by the word ‘Deserts’, which is placed in the verse-structure with absolute mastery. There is a catch of the breath after lie’, then the stress comes down on ‘Desert’ with an effect of awe and dread. This Vast eternity will hold, not opportunities for almost endless procrastination, but mere sterile emptiness (Mayweed, 1969, up. 146-47). Radically altered in tone, the third section presents a third kind of time, an escape into cyclical time and thereby a chance for immortality.
Again we encounter the sun archetype, but this is the sun of ‘soul’ and of ‘instant fires’- images not of death but of life and creative energy, which are fused with the sphere, the archetype of primal ‘Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball'(Queering, 2005, p. 200) The third section presents the conclusion. If we had all the time in the world we could take as long as we wished and as was proper to woo each other; we do not have much time; therefore we must act now, And tear our pleasures with rough strife Thorough the Iron gates of life.
Timelessness dominates the first section , and an awareness of how short man’s life dominates the second section. The third section is dominated by images of violence and action (Stephen, 1984, p. 104). The time motif appears in its own right, and not only y means of imagery. The word itself appears once in each section: near the beginning of the first and second sections line land 22: “Had we but world enough, and time / Time’s winged chariot hurrying near;” and in the third section as a central section of the lover’s proposition: “Rather at once our time devour”.
Clustering around this basic unifying motif are these phrases and allusions from the first section: the ‘long love’s day, the specific time spans spent in adoring the woman’s body and the vaster if less specific ‘before the Flood’ and till the conversion of the Jews’, and the slow Roth of Vegetable love’ and the two uses of age in : An age at least to every section And the last age should show your heart. At the beginning of the second section, the powerful image of time’s winged chariot as it moves across a desert includes the words ‘always’ and ‘eternity.
Other time words are ‘no more’ and ‘long- preserved’, there is also the sense of elapsed time in the allusions to the future decomposition of the lover’s bodies. Although the third section delays the use of the word time’, the word ‘now is placed so as to receive maximum stress. The word 134 All Abdullah Maid (2011). Studies in Literature and Language, 3 133-135 appears thrice more in the section in: Now let us sport us while we may; And now, like amorous birds of prey, It is thought Marvel were saying let us delay no longer.
We know we cannot live forever. Let us therefore take advantage of life while we still have it, now instead of having the victims of time, and allowing him to devour us in his slowly moving Jaws, let us rather devour our time. The heavily stressed, truncated trochee turns the poem around its ultimate corner of haste and desire. Politeness falls away as the menacing images of time. It s strengthened by ‘instant’, ‘at once’, and ‘languish in [time’s] slow- chapped powers “Rather at once our time devour J Than languish in his slow-chapped power. The phrase thorough the iron gates of life’, also may suggest the passing from temporal life into the not so certain eternity (Guenon, 2005, up. 113-14). Thus, though we cannot make our Sun Stand still, yet we will make him run. The conclusion toward which the mortal syllogism drivers is one in which both the forms and the concepts indigenous to the poem of carper diem are escaped from, transcended, by an imaginary act of overgrowing.
If the sun cannot be made to stand still, as Joshua made it do, Marvels lover will blunt the threat of time by making it run faster, loosening it’s grip by interrupting it’s relentless rhythm with human intensity (Corns, 1997, p. 295). The inclination of the lady heart may well be revealed by the last age’, but the narrator presses her to yield before the extinction of passion on the day of judgment.
Time does not redeem, it destroys; its Winged chariot’ rushes the lovers towards the prospect of ‘deserts of vast eternity and to a grave where the poet’s song Coho’s in the vacancy. The last section attempts to counter these negatives with a reassertion of life and pleasure. Only here does the narrator insist that the lover’s energy can try to outpace or stop time: by rolling their strength into a ball they can tear’, like cannon-shot, through the Iron gates of life'(Sanders, 1999, p. 239).
In representing the age-old dilemma of time and immortality, Marvel employed a cluster of images charged with mythic significance. His poet-lover seems to 135 naturalistic time; love is a means of participating in, even intensifying, the mysterious youths of nature’s eternal cycle. If life is to be Judged, as some philosophers have suggested, not by duration but by intensity, then Marvels lovers , at least during the act of love, will achieve a kind of immortality by ‘devouring time or by transcending the laws of clock time time’s winged chariot’.