Energy Management Flashcard
“Re-thinking Your Relationship with Energy,” Jose Rinu Roll no-5769 Energy management-an overview Management is a process involving planning, directing and controlling the various activities to maximize the productivity.
In the same context Energy Management is the science involving planning, directing and controlling the supply and consumption of energy to maximize productivity and comforts and minimize the energy cost and pollution with conscious, judicious and efficient use of energy.The basic objective of energy management function is to see that energy needs of the various organisations are satisfactorily met at minimum cost at present and in future to extend possible. Strong commitment from top management is essential for a successful energy management program which includes managerial decision making. However, managing energy does not necessarily require a formal system; by following simple techniques any firm can improve their enrgy consumption performance. Energy strategy spans a number of the key functions within a firm and therefore requires cooperation and commitment from all.Senior management provide the leadership and set direction; finance are involved to ensure that most appropriate purchasing decisions are made; production, as the key user, ensures that energy is used appropriately; engineering ensure that plant is operated and maintained efficiently and HR are involved to facilitate training and help generate a culture of energy awareness.
It typically involve the setting up of an energy management team with participants from each of the functions mentioned above. This team would support a dedicated energy manager with responsibility for the coordination of energy management activities.Depending on the size of the business, this may or may not be a full-time, dedicated post. The team in association with senior management would establish an energy management policy, which should include general aims and specific energy cost reduction targets, timetables and budgetary limits, the methods to be employed and the organization of management resources. The energy manager should set up a system to collect, analyze and report on energy consumption and costs. This can consist of reading meters on a regular basis and the analysis of utility bills i.
e. gas, fuel oil and electricity.Business opportunity, potential risks and company positioning are key drivers for company’s energy management. Steps involved in the process First look This first step involves a thorough, organization-wide assessment of the importance of energy to the company in relation to its overall needs, risks, goals, image and reputation, and of potential business opportunities through energy-related products or services. Properly implemented, the assessment can provide clear direction as to the potential inherent in a strategic approach to energy planning and management.
The key question posed by the assessment process is “what are the business opportunities related to energy? ” This framework provides the context for evaluating energy as more than simply a cost of operation. Companies that have embarked on such an evaluation have asked themselves very fundamental questions about how energy relates to: • Potential business opportunities; • Potential business risks; and • The overall “positioning” of the company The bottom line is that while cost is an increasingly important factor, companies evaluate the importance of energy from multiple perspectives.Other factors such as risk management, reputation, and even product-line issues may carry weight as well. As Howard Stanley of Corning, Inc.
observes: “Cost and consumption are key elements of managing energy. You have to gather your data and implement strategies to affect the factors you can control. Even if your energy dependence is low, if energy is important to your company, then a review is justified. ” The outcome of this step is a decision: to go forward with a more strategic approach to energy management, or not.
OutlayThe design and planning process begins with an assessment of a company’s actual energy needs versus “business as usual” practices and an investigation into the most promising solutions for meeting those needs. Taking this approach—asking the fundamental question of “how much energy do we need? ”—encourages thinking beyond the familiar and the comfortable and exploring possibilities for innovation. It is important that process design and planning consider all factors that could inhibit success, from corporate culture to appropriate scale to resources, funding and organization.Opportunity valuation This step is the “nuts and bolts” of the energy strategy and management planning process because it is where real opportunities can be realized. It is where the “real work gets done,” but because of its potential size and complexity, especially in larger, diversified and energy intensive businesses, if not well mapped out and systematically approached, significant opportunities may be missed, or momentum may be lost that will be difficult to regain.
Essential to this third and crucial step in the process is a baseline that reflects the types, quantities, and costs of energy used in each significant component of the business. Ideally this will include facilities, operations, transportation, distribution, and in some cases even the energy required by the product itself, especially if that issue is increasing in importance in a business sector. Also, for certain companies, this will include an assessment of new or expanded energy-related products and services that may benefit the company. Energy efficiency reduces the amount of energy used, reducing both cost and environmental impact. • Energy supply management can help to control costs and assure reliability. • Energy related products and services can help existing products to be more competitive in the marketplace or create new markets.
Factors influencing Energy opportunities at a given point in time are shown in Fig At any point in time, in addition to the cost of energy, a range of factors influence the opportunities that are available.Because these influencing factors, including energy cost, are dynamic, a strategic approach to energy planning and management must be dynamic and iterative rather than static. Only in this way will opportunities be continuously identified and realized. Implementation This fourth and final process step follows a classic management system model and involves determining and setting in place an organizational structure that will ensure that the program is integrated into the overall company management culture and that the new energy management goals are achieved.Regardless of the framework decided upon, certain management principles and tools must be in place to achieve significant results.
These include: • Leadership at the very top of the company with a clear commitment to results; • Clearly stated goals and measurable objectives at appropriate levels; • Clear accountability for results, whether in a single or multiple executives; • Sufficient resources to enable achievement of the objectives and goals; • Periodic review and updating of goals, objectives and resource commitments; and • Recognition of progress and reward for achievements.Opportunities and Challenges In Industrial Energy Management| In the wake of increasing energy saving goals, longer program planning horizons, and greater flexibility in program design, industries are encountering both opportunities and challenges in supporting the energy management needs of their commercial and industrial customers. Sustainable development efforts to eradicate poverty, improving living standards and conserve natural resources must be balanced against high rates of population growth, shrinking natural resources and the structure of economic growth and development in the ESCWA region.ESCWA region and identifies opportunities for improving the contribution of the energy sector to sustainable development in the region. Given recent trends in energy and the environment, industrial customers are increasingly recognizing the connections among energy performance, profitability, and future competitiveness.
This environment has opened up opportunities for members to identify customers willing to make energy performance a management priority, to help those customers integrate energy into their management systems, and to position industrial programs to support continuous energy improvement.An additional opportunity lies in developing and supporting a significant culture change that encourages customers to routinely use energy management projects in their ongoing efforts to improve energy performance. The challenges come in making the case to management to adopt recommendations coming out of energy audits, then supporting and funding implementation of these projects. In addition, industrial energy efficiency programs achieve most of their savings through custom projects, which require greater expertise to assess and implement.Premium efficiency motors, variable speed drives, and even lighting can be the source of modest savings through regular plant assessments, but greater savings, needed to meet program goals, are often found tied to important industrial systems and processes, which are more complex to analyze and evaluate. While energy management can include a whole host of measures and approaches, helping customers build systems to report and manage energy consumption and continuously improve energy performance are common themes, as efficiency program administrators come together.
The consensus view is that energy management is an opportunity for programs, a way to identify lessons from early program efforts, and an avenue for exploring how existing energy management resources can be used. INITIATIVES Energy efficiency refers to the physical performance of specific end uses or energy services such as lighting, heating, cooling, and motor drive. Greater energy efficiency is achieved by replacing, upgrading, or maintaining existing equipment to reduce the amount of energy needed.Energy efficiency is usuallymeasured by the output quantity per unit of energy input (miles per gallon or lumens per watt, for example). Because energy is one of several factors of production (labor, capital, and materials are others), energy efficiency improvements contribute to greater energy productivity and economic efficiency. • Energy conservation refers to measures taken to reduce energy consumption.
Conservation measures include substituting more energy-efficient equipment to produce the same level of energy services with less electricity and changing consumer behavior to cut energy use.The term is sometimes used interchangeably with energy efficiency. l Demand-Side Management (DSM) refers to utility-led programs intended to affect the timing or amount of customer electricity use. These include energy efficiency programs aimed at reducing the energy needed to serve customer needs and programs that shift electricity demand to reduce peak loads or to make more economic use of utility resources. All utility DSM programs fit into one or both of following: 1) programs affecting the way energy-using equipment is operated, and 2) programs that focus on the installation of improved technologies.
A variety of DSM mechanisms are in effect, including audit and information programs, rebates and other consumer financial incentives, direct installation programs, technical assistance, and energy performance contracting. • Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) is a teohnique used by utilities and State energy regulatory agencies to develop flexible plans for providing reliable and economic electric power supply for customer needs. The process includes explicit comparisons of both supply-and demand-side resource options to meet a range of future electricity demand scenarios.Utility planners compare the lifetime capital and operating costs, availability, reliability, and environmental impacts of the various supply-and demand-side resource options in a consistent manner to develop an overall plan to meet Identified future needs at least cost. There are several competing methodologies for defining what resource chokes constitute “least-coost” mix.
The IRP process usually includes public participation and comment and may require approval of State regulators before adoption. After adoption, the plan is used to guide utility chokes in acquiring new resources.IRP is sometimes also referred to as least-cost planning. IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION In a scenario where India tries to accelerate its development process and cope with increasing energy demands, conservation and energy efficiency measures are to play a central role in our energy policy. A national movement for energy conservation can significantly reduce the need for fresh investment in energy supply systems in coming years. It is imperative that all-out efforts are made to realize this potential.
VITAL STATSEnergy conservation is an objective to which all citizen in the country can contribute. Whether a household or a factory, a small shop or a large commercial building, a farmer or a office worker, every user and producer of energy can and must make this effort for his own benefit, as well as that of the nation. Progress Made in Energy Conservation in India The progress made by India in energy conservation can be seen in the following three areas: * Policy and institutional, * End-users, and * Technology.Policy and Institutional Recognizing the fact that efficient use of energy and its conservation is the least-cost option to mitigate the gap between demand and supply, Government of India has enacted the Energy Conservation Act -2001 and established Bureau of Energy EfficiencyThe Act provides for institutionalizing and strengthening delivery mechanism for energy efficiency services in the country and provides the much-needed coordination between the various entities.Important features of Energy Conservation Act include: Standards and Labeling * Evolve minimum energy consumption standards for notified equipment and appliances. * Prohibit manufacture, sale and import of equipment and appliances not confirming to standards.
* Introduce mandatory labeling to enable consumers to make informed choice. Designated Consumers * Schedule to EC Act provides list of 15 energy intensive industries and other establishments to be notified as designated consumers (DC).DCs to appoint or designate energy managers. * Get energy audits conducted by accredited energy auditors and Implement techno-economic viable recommendations.
* Comply with norms of specific energy consumption fixed, and Submit report on steps taken. Energy Conservation Building Codes * Central Government to prepare guidelines on ECBC. * To be modified by States to suit local climatic conditions. * To be applicable to new buildings having connected load of 500 KW or more.Promotional Provisions to support EC Act Various promotional provisions in support of the EC Act have, been initiated by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, which are briefly explained below: * Indian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (IIPEC). This voluntary program of sharing of best practices, undertaking and specific energy consumption targets has full acceptance in the 8 sectors of industry including aluminium, cement, chlor-alkali, fertilizer, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, refinery and textile sector.
Best practices have been recorded and published through CDs and also incorporated in BEE’s website which is being updated periodically for use of designated consumers. Participating Industrial units have taken voluntary targets for saving energy of worth Rs 400 crores annually. Energy Efficiency Policy in India – Significant Developments * 1965 – Energy Survey Committee of India (ESCI) * 1974 – Fuel PolicyCommittee (FPC) * 1979 – Working Group on Energy Policy (WGEP) * 1983 – Advisory Board on Energy (ABE) * 1987 – Advisory Board on Energy Efficiency in PrimeRecent Policy Initiatives * 2001- Energy Conservation Act (ECA) – Bureau of EnergyEfficiency operationalised in 2002 * 2008 – National Mission for Enhanced Energy EfficiencyEnergy Efficiency in the National Action Plan on Climate ChangeNational Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency recentlyproposed an Energy Efficiency Action Plan * Perform Achieve and Trade scheme – market-basedmechanism to enhance energy efficiency * Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE) – CDMroadmap, Standards and Labeling, ESCO promotion,capacity-building * Financing Energy Efficiency- Tax exemptions, Revolving fund,Partial Risk Guarantee Fund * Power Sector Technology Strategy – fuel-shifting, focus onnew as well as old plants, IGCC demonstration plants,Development of know-how for advanced super-critical boilers | | In India, Energy Service Companies and local governments are teaming up to increase energy efficiency and save money. With India’s energy demand expected to more than double by 2030, there is a pressing need to develop innovative ways to conserve energy. As major energy consumers, local governments in India are key players in promoting and implementing energy conservation measures and technologies. Enter Energy Service Companies (ESCOs), which provide energy efficiency-related services on a performance contracting basis, instead of the traditional fee for service model.
Municipalities in several states across India are partnering with ESCOs to implement energy conservation measures. The trend for municipalities to use the ESCO model began within the last decade as a way to save both energy and money without the up-front costs of typical energy efficiency investments. The increasing preference for commercial energy has led to a sharp increase in the demand for electricity and fossil fuels. Use of Fossil Fuels has resulted in emission of huge quantity of carbon dioxide causing serious environmental damages. There is still a considerable potential for reducing energy consumption by adopting energy efficiency measures at various sectors of our country.Energy efficiency will not only reduce the need to create new capacity requiring high investment, but also result in substantial environmental benefits.
With the enactment of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, a legal framework is now available for promoting energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy efficient use of energy and its conservation will succeed as a programme if opinion leaders and captains of industry take the lead in supporting the conservation programme. POTENTIAL OF INDIA The Industrial Sector consumes about half of the total commercial energy available in India, 70 % of which is in energy-intensive sectors – fertilizers, aluminium, textiles, cement, iron and steel, and paper – 15-25% of this is avoidable 5 – 10% energy saving is possible simply by better housekeeping measures * Another 10-15% is possible with small investment like low cost retrofits, use of energy efficient devices and controls etc. (TERI. 1996, Bhattacharjee, S. 2000) The quantum of saving is much higher if high cost measures are included (major retrofit, process modifications etc.
) Industry and transport sectors have the highest potential for energy savings Sector 2011 2021 2031 Industry 44% 42% 41% Transport 41% 44% 47% For instance: * In 2001, DSCLES, one of the first ESCOs in India, worked with the New Delhi Municipal Council on a high-efficiency electrical lighting pilot project that now saves 252,000 kWh per year. The project produces savings of INR 20 (50,000 $US) and 149 million tones of avoided CO2 emissions per year.DSCLES financed the initial investment of IRN 30 lakhs (75,000 $US), which means the project’s payback period is approximately 18 months. * Asian Electronics replaced approximately 12,000 tube lights at Sachivalaya Complex for the government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, which reduced the lighting load by 64% without sacrificing illumination levels.
* The Gujarat Urban Development Company (GUDC) intends to implement energy efficiency programs in street lighting and water pumping systems in 150 municipalities across the state through performance contracts. In response, ESCOs from throughout India have submitted project proposals, which will be evaluated based on the ESCO’s capabilities and the total energy savings.GUDC is requiring a minimum energy savings of 20% for both water pumping and street lighting projects. * In the state of Tamil Nadu, a municipal energy efficiency program partnering with ESCOs is underway in 29 cities. ESCO projects follow either a guaranteed savings model and/or a shared savings model.
In a guaranteed savings model, the customer provides financing and the ESCO guarantees the performance of a project. The ESCO is paid a fixed fee if the guaranteed savings is achieved through the upgrade. In the shared savings model, an ESCO provides financing through its own funds or a loan, and the client and ESCO share the energy savings based on a predetermined ratio.For municipalities, the shared savings model offers an avenue for energy efficiency projects without the upfront investment. In the end, the savings from these projects lead to a payback period of 18 to 24 months.
The appeal of the shared savings model for government energy conservation projects is clear. ESCOs guarantee a percentage of savings, thus taking away the performance risk from the municipality. And since ESCOs provide project financing, municipalities avoid financial risk as well. State and municipal government efficiency projects so far are just the tip of the iceberg.
According to data from the Indian Ministry of Power, the investment potential for energy savings in municipalities amounts to 325 illion $US with annual savings of 3. 7 billion kWh. As part of the Accelerating Clean Energy Markets in India (ACEM) project, WRI is analyzing the ESCO industry in India. Powering Up: The Investment Potential of Energy Service Companies in India gives a comprehensive overview of the Indian ESCO industry and its investment potential. STILL TO BE DONE (INDIAN POINT OF VIEW) A JOURNEY OF THOUSAND MILES STARTS WITH A SINGLE STEP Residential Electricity Use by Application Energy saving in homes * Using renewable energy devices/systems such as solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar lanterns, solar home systems, solar generators, and other devices Retrofitting some components of solar passive architecture, for example, sunshades, double glazed windows, smart glazing, window overhangs, roof treatments, ventilation, evaporative cooling, and day lighting, depending on the climatic zone `where the house is constructed * Adopting energy conservation devices, for example, LEDs (light-emitting diodes)/CFLs (compact fluorescent lights) instead of incandescent bulbs, electronics chokes and fan regulators, sensors for automatically switching lights on or off, automatic speed regulating fans/motors, energy-efficient electrical appliances such as fans, refrigerators, air conditioners, coolers, room heaters, and water pumps among others SOLAR WATER HEATER A solar water heater is a device that uses heat energy of the sun to provide hot water for various applications.
In homes, it is useful for bathing, washing, cleaning, and other chores.A domestic solar water heater, with a capacity of 100 lpd (litres per day), is sufficient for a family of four or five members. It can easily replace a 2-Kw electric geyser and can save up to 1500 units of electricity a year. It tariff and hot water use in a year.
After this, the hot water is available almost free of cost during the remaining lifespan of thesystem, which is about 15–20 years. The system is generally installed on the terrace and requires minimum maintenance. It works automatically and one does not have to operate any part of the system. Typically, a surface area of 3 sq m is required to install it. The system can also be installed on a south-facing windowsill if space is not available on the terrace.It pays back the cost in three to five years depending on the electricity The life of FPC-based systems is generally 15–20 years, and they are costlier than ETC-based systems.
There are 57 BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards)-approved manufacturers of these systems, and they have had a stable market in the country for the last many years. ETC-based systems are relatively new and could be more reliable for colder regions and regions that have hard water. The life of these systems is, however, less since their collectors comprise glass tubes, which are fragile. The cost of solar water heaters, with a capacity of 100 lpd, varies between Rs 18 000 and Rs 25 000.To offset the initial high price, loans at 2% are offered to users through banks/financial institutions. The list of such banks/financial institutions is available on the Ministry’s website.
In addition, some state governments also provide state subsidy. For example, Delhi Transco Ltd offers Rs 6000 as rebate on installation of the system. A few governments also provide rebate in property tax and in electricity tariff if a solar water heater has been installed at home. SOLAR COOKER A solar cooker is a device that uses heat energy from the sun to cook food.
Two types of solar cookers are available in the market— box type and dish type. A box solar cooker, suitable for a family of four or five, can cook food in two to three hours.The cooker has to be kept outside in the sun and can cook up to four items at once. It is available with electrical backup, so it can be used even in non-sunshine hours. It costs Rs 1500–2500 depending on its features, and can save up to four LPG cylinders a year.
Food cannot be fried in the box solar cooker. A dish solar cooker can cook food in lesser time than a box solar cooker. It can even be used for preparing chapaties and frying. It can, however, be used to cook only one item at a time.
It costs Rs 5000–6000. A subsidy of 30% is available on these cookers through State Nodal Agencies, whose list is available in annexure. SOLAR LANTERN It is a portable device for lighting.It is available with a 10 W SPV (solar photovoltaic) module, 7W CFL, maintenance-free lead acid battery, and electronics. The lantern can provide light for a minimum of three hours daily and covers a range of 360°. Solar lanterns that follow MNRE specifications cost Rs 2500–3000.
Imported models are also available at a lower price SOLAR HOME SYSTEM Some models of solar home systems are listed below. * 18 W module with one light (cost: Rs 5000 approximately) * 37 W module with two lights or one light and one fan (cost: Rs 10 000 approximately) * 74 W module with two lights and one fan or four lights SOLAR INVERTER/POWE PACK Solar inverters can effectively replace small generators, which run on kerosene and petrol and cause pollution and noise.Installed in homes and small establishments, these inverters could power lights, fans, computers, and other electronic devices. The solar inverter comprises a solar photovoltaic panel, battery, and an inverter. It costs about Rs 2–3 lakh/kWp (kilowatt peak).
RETROFITTING SOLAR PASSIVE FEATURES Passive architectural features are mostly integrated at the design stage of new homes. However, in case your home is still deficient on some concepts, you can retrofit certain features to achieve thermal and visual comfort and to reduce energy consumption. SUNSHADES These are generally installed at the top of windows/doors to obstruct sunrays from entering the building during summers and allowing them in during winters.This helps protect the building from over heating during summers, and keeps it warm during winters, thereby reducing the electricity consumed by room coolers/heaters. Windows on the east, west, and south of the house should be adequately protected by chajjas and sunshades.
In case such features are absent, provide awnings or other shading devices to protect windows from direct sunlight. DOUBLE GLASSED WINDOWS Insulation that helps reduce heat gain into, and heat loss from, a building. Double glazed windows with air gaps can act as a good Sunshades Double glazed windows insulation. The insulating air gap lowers the heat gain of the building. It should be used for air-conditioned spaces.BEE (Bureau of Energy Efficiency) has recommended specifications for glazing in air-conditioned spaces in the Energy Conservation Building Code 2007 (www.
bee-nic. in). Most homes usually have single clear glass. Double glazed windows, with sun control (coatings, shading, and so on), should preferably replace single glazed windows to reduce energy used for air-conditioning.
ROOF TREATMENT Roofs are exposed to maximum incident solar radiation. So it is important that the roof of your house should be protected to minimize solar gain. Some simple roof treatments that can be applied to existing homes to reduce summer heat gain are as follows: * Whitewashing the roof before the onset of the summer. * Spraying water on the roof.Sprinkling water at regular intervals reduces heat gain through roof. * Using shining and reflecting material, for example, light-coloured broken china mosaic, heat reflecting paints, and other reflective material, on the rooftop.
EVAPORATIVE COOLING When water stored in a water body evaporates into the surrounding air, it lowers the ambient temperature. This phenomenon is known as evaporative cooling. The presence of a water body such as a pond, lake or sea near the building or even a fountain in the courtyard can provide the cooling effect. The most commonly used system is a desert cooler, which comprises water, evaporating pads, a fan, and a pump.External cooling through humidification can also be achieved by keeping surfaces of roofs moist using sprays or lawn sprinklers.
Evaporative cooling is very effective in the hot and dry climatic zone, where humidity is low. LAND SCAPING Landscaping provides a buffer against heat, sun, noise, traffic, and airflow. It is also effective in diverting airflow or exchanging heat in a solar-passive design. Deciduous trees, such as amaltas, champa, and similar varieties, provide shade in the summer and sunlight in the winter when their leaves fall. So planting such trees to the west and south-west of a building is a natural solar passive strategy.
Evergreen trees provide shade and wind control round the year.They are best placed to the north and north-west of a building. Natural cooling, without air-conditioning, can also be enhanced by planting trees to channel south-easterly summer breezes in tropical climates. PASSIVE HEATING In places in cold climatic zones, for example Shimla, where temperatures outside are lower than they are inside, heat flows away from buildings through their external envelopes and due to air exchange.
In such climates, passive heating measures are adopted to provide thermal comfort and also to reduce the demand for conventional heating. If your house faces south, construct sunspaces adjacent to south-facing walls. A sunspace can be constructed by using double glazing.The space between the glazing and the living space should have a thermal mass, which will capture solar heat during daytime and release it into the space during night time. The sunspace glazing should be protected by curtains and blinds so that heat does not escape out at night. EFFICIENT LIGHTING Lighting in a home is generally responsible for 20% of the monthly electricity bill.
Efficient lighting reduces energy consumption, thereby saving energy and money, without compromising on the quality of light. Lighting improvements are the surest way of cutting energy bills. Using new lighting technologies can reduce energy use in the house by 50% to 75%.Lighting controls offer further energy savings by reducing the amount of time that lights are on without being used. Indoor lighting Use fluorescent tubelights and energy-efficient CFLs in fixtures at home for high-quality and high-efficiency lighting. Fluorescent lamps are much more efficient than incandescent (standard) bulbs and last up to six times longer.
Although fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps cost a bit more than incandescent bulbs, they pay for themselves by saving energy over their lifetime. A 15 W CFL can replace a 60 W incandescent bulb and a 20 W CFL can replace 100 W bulb. The average cost of a CFL is Rs 100, and the excess investment is easily paid back in a year’s time.A 36 W triphosphor tubelight, provides 32% more light than an ordinary tubelight and can be used in larger spaces.
T5 tubelights are also good replacement for ordinary tubelights. They save about 40% energy and last twice as long as ordinary tubelights. The cost of a T5 tubelight varies between Rs 450 and Rs 500. Outdoor lighting Many homeowners use outdoor lighting for decoration or security. Outdoor lights can be powered by small PV (photovoltaic) modules that convert sunlight directly into electricity. Consider PV-powered lights for areas that are not close to an existing power supply line.
Solar outdoor lights also come as stand alone fixtures.Direct gain method An 11 W CFL, with a 74 W photovoltaic module and a 12 V/75 AH battery, costs Rs 22 000–24 000. When fully charrged, the battery can power the light from dusk to dawn. Efficient air conditioners ACs (air conditioners) are used to cool or heat a room and usually consume the highest energy among all home appliances.
Window ACs and split ACs are most commonly used. These are available in different sizes— 0. 75 tonne, 1tonne, 1. 5 tonne, and 2 tonne. Insulation of the walls, roof, and efficient windows in the room would allow you to pick an AC with lesser tonnage.
Selecting the right size The energy consumption of an AC depends on its size. Therefore, select an AC that suits your requirements.A 1-tonne AC is appropriate for a 150 sq ft room, while a 2-tonne AC is sufficient for a room, which is 300 sq ft in area. Selecting an efficient AC The efficiency of an AC affects energy consumption as much as the size of the AC does. Select an efficient AC, preferably one that has a BEE Star label.
The number of stars on the BEE(Bureau of Energy Efficiency) label indicates the efficiency of an AC; the higher the number of stars the more efficient the appliance. For instance, a BEE 4-star rated 1. 5-tonne AC would consume 194 units of electricity in a month compared to an inefficient AC of the same size that would consume 278 units during the same period. An efficient 1. -tonne AC would cost about Rs 16 500, whereas an ordinary AC would cost about Rs 15 000. The additional Rs 1500 invested on the efficient AC will be recovered in less than six months due to savings in the electricity bill.
In case of the non-availability of the BEE star label, check the EER (energy efficiency ratio) mentioned on the AC. An EER of 8 is equivalent to a 1-star BEE label and an EER of 10. 6 and above is equivalent to 5-star BEE label. Efficient air conditioners Installing an AC While installing an AC, ensure that the exterior (or back) of the AC is not exposed to direct sunlight and is away from heat sources such as chimneys. Efficient airflow across the exterior would ensure efficient operation of the AC.Make sure that air does not escape through doors and windows by sealing them properly.
This would help in reducing energy consumption. To optimize the efficiency of the AC ensure that equipments such as televisions, computers or lamps are placed away from it. Operating an AC The energy consumed by an AC is also affected by its operation. Set the temperature higher to reduce energy consumption.
It is estimated that a temperature setting of 23 C consumes 10% more energy than a temperature setting of 26 C. A few ACs equipped with the ‘sleep’ mode enable savings during operation. Maintaining an AC Regular maintenance of ACs helps in improving their efficiency.Clean the filters of the AC at least once in 15 days to ensure efficient airflow and cooling. Also, to enable the AC to operate efficiently, the exterior part (or back) of the AC should be free from dust, preventing blockage. REFRIGERATORS Refrigerators are one of the highest consumers of electricity in houses.
However, they have become significantly efficient in the past few years, and are still improving. A typical refrigerator has a lifespan of 15–20 years. The cost of running it over that time period is several times the initial purchase price. So buy the most efficient model available; investing a little more in a refrigerator with higher efficiency offers solid payback.A BEE 5-star rated refrigerator that costs more initially will have lower operation costs because of better construction and insulation, and will pay for itself in less than four years compared to a 2-star refrigerator.
ENERGY SAVERS Passive design * Use light colours to paint the interior of home for effective day Lighting. * Incorporate solar passive designs in buildings at the time of construction. * In summers, draw curtains over windows facing south, west, and south-west or use sun films. * Install double pane windows—heat escapes through a single glass pane almost 14 times faster than through a well-insulated wall. * Control heat, air, and moisture leakage by sealing windows and natural materials. * Use reflective tiles or insulation on the roof to keep the interior Lighting * Switch off lights and fans when there is nobody in the room.
CFLs use 75% less electricity and offer similar amount of light as incandescent bulbs. If you replace 25% of the lights in high-use areas with CFLs, you can save up to 50% in lighting energy bills. * Electronic ballasts can reduce power consumption by 20%. You can cut consumption by 10%–50% with slim tube lights that are star-rated by BEE. * Use artificial lighting only when there is inadequate natural light in a space. * Ensure that the type of lamp used in a space complements the tasks being performed in that space.
This is commonly referred to as task lighting. For instance, do not use two wall-mounted bulbs where a single table lamp will suffice. Use dimmer switches. They allow lighting levels to be adjusted according to the occasion or task and reduce the energy consumption of the lamp. * Use outdoor lights with timers or photocells so that they turn off automatically in daylight. * Replace electromagnetic (copper) ballasts (chokes) with electronic ballasts.
* Don’t replace tube lights with CFLs. A CFL is a point source, that is, it emits light from a single point, whereas a tube light is a line source and emits light over a larger linear spread. * Don’t use dark-coloured surfaces in workrooms. These reduce the reflected light levels and increase the number of lamps required to illuminate the space. Avoid switching lights on and off frequently. This affects the lifespan of the lamps.
Electronic devices and appliances * Look for BEE-star labels on electrical appliances. * Use electronic devices with occupancy sensors which switch on or off automatically by sensing if the room is occupied. * Switch to evaporative coolers from air conditioners during hot/dry summer months. * Buy split ACs instead of window ACs. They cost more, but they are more energy efficient and consume lesser electricity.
* Do not install AC units on walls that are exposed to direct sunlight through a major part of the day during summers. In other words, avoid installing the AC on the west and south walls. Do not apply dark colours on the external surfaces (roof and walls) of the house. Dark colours absorb more heat than light colours, leading to increased use of the AC. * Do not expose the condenser (the part that faces outside) of split units on the terrace/roof to direct sunlight.
* Ensure that walls do not surround the AC unit on all sides. The condenser of the unit must have enough space around it for air to circulate and to help the refrigerant dissipate its heat easily. * When using ACs avoid overcooling of the room to a degree where quilts need to be used. * An easy way to cut down on the energy required by an AC is to set the thermostat at the highest possible point, and turn on the ceiling fan.
This shall create air movement, circulate the cooled air more effectively, and help your sweat to evaporate easily without greatly increasing electricity use. * With each degree that the temperature setting of an AC above ° 22 C, 3% – 5% less energy is used. Set the temperature of the AC ° at 25 C for the most comfort at the least cost. * Clean an AC unit’s filter periodically to enable efficient airflow and cooling. * Do not use remote controls for switching off televisions and ACs. Switching them off from the mains saves electricity.
* Switch off electrical appliances when not in use. Low power gadgets such as chargers, adaptors, inverters, televisions, and so on consume substantial power even in the standby mode. If computers must be left on, turn off the monitors; monitors alone use more than half the system’s energy. Setting computers, monitors, and copiers to ‘sleep’ mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by about 40%. * Activate and standardize ‘power down’ on new and existing PCs. * Purchase flat-screen LCD monitors.
* Do not use screensavers when computer monitors are not active. Let them switch to the sleep mode or turn them off instead. * Allow enough space for air circulation around refrigerators. * Avoid opening refrigerator doors frequently as it leads to energy loss. * Allow hot food items to cool to room temperature before putting them in refrigerators. SHOULD KNOW FACTSRecycled paper uses less natural resources and less toxic chemicals in paper making process.
It has been reported that One Tonne of paper made from 100% wastepaper * Saves about 15 trees * Saves about 2,500 Kwh of energy * Saves about 20,000 liters of water * Reduces about 25 kilograms of air pollutants. CFL’s Today in India at least 80 per cent of electricity is wasted – because of the kinds of lamps, bulbs and other implements we use that consume more electricity CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lights) reduce electricity costs. A CFL bulb gives five times more light than conventional electric bulbs. CFL burning hours are more than 8 times the normal ones.Fluorescent tube lights, compact fluorescent lights, consume less electricity and do not produce too much heat. Instead of using 60 W bulbs, if you would use 15 W CFL bulbs; you can save at least 45 W electricity consumption per hour.
Per month you can save up to 11 units of consumption. You can reduce costs. CFL bulbs last for at least 5 to 8 months. By saving energy and electricity consumption this way, you will help light up those villages that have no electricity Details| 60 W bulbs| 15 W CFL| Saving| Cost of Bulb| Rs. 10| 116| -| Wattage| 60| 15| 45| Burning Hours| 6 months, thousand hours| 4 years, 8,000 hours| -| Per year Electricity consumption| 115| 36| 79| Per year cost per unit @ Rs. 2.
75| Rs. 316. 25 / -| Rs. 99. 00 / -| Rs. 217.
5 / -| Total cost for four years| Rs. 1265. 00 / -| Rs. 396. 00 / -| Rs. 869.
00/-| Source: Non Conventional Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Ltd ALTERNATE SOURCES COAL India has vast reserves of coal and participation of the private sector in captive mining, across different user industries, is an immediate opportunity for investment. 38 coal fields with mineable reserves in excess of 2,800 million tonnes1 have been identified and are in the process of being allocated, involving a total capital requirement of around USD 1. 5-2 billion. Investment activity is also seen in other parts of the value chain including washeries.
OILA number of private investors have entered this segment attracted by the government’s policies for upstream exploration and production. Six rounds of competitive bidding under the New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP), have taken place and around 185 blocks were awarded and reserves estimated at 700 MMT2 of oil and gas have been discovered. There is a huge potential in refining due to the strategic advantages of low cost and location, and is already a net exporter of products. At present, the downstream marketing sector is also open to private participation. GAS Gas discoveries of around 700 bcm2 in the last decade point towards a tremendous promise.
While in the near term, potential for LNG may be limited due to inability of key sectors such as power to absorb high international prices, in the longer term there would be place for LNG as the share of Natural Gas in India’s energy mix increases. On the demand side, an emerging area is auto-CNG and piped gas which together account for 7percent of total gas demand in the last five years. In the next few years, at least 30 cities have been identified for city-wide gas coverage by private and public sector players. The draft gas pipeline policy gives support to the development of a national gas grid meant to create a common gas market across the country. NUCLEAR India has one of the largest reserves of the nuclear fuel – thorium.However, the nuclear energy programme will continue to be uranium – based until commercial production based on thorium becomes feasible.
If the Indo-U. S. nuclear deal goes through, there will be a boost to nuclear energy and private participation in this sector would be expected. HYDRO India is endowed with a hydroelectric potential of about 150,000 MW3. However, only 17 percent of the hydroelectric potential has been harnessed so far; with another 5 percent under various stages of development.
Private participation in the hydro sector will be important to meet the target of an additional 45,000 MW of hydro capacity within the next ten years.Various policy measures are being contemplated to encourage private participation which seek to address issues such as mitigating geological risks, resettlement and rehabilitation of project affected persons through Public Private Partnership initiatives and incentives for performance. The revised hydro policy is currently under discussion by the Government of India. RENEWABLE SOURCES Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are an important element of India’s power policy aimed to meet the power needs of remote areas in an environmentally friendly way.
Certain forms of renewable energy sources (such as wind energy,small-hydro and biomass) have taken off. Strong private participation is seen insectors like wind power, in response to the policy and initiatives. Key Issues Facing the Sector * High capital costs and low plant factors raise the cost of renewable energy,which discourages adoption by financially weak state governments.However, technological evolution and the huge power deficit make an active choice for power utilities * Private sector interest is dependent on regulatory certainty on tariff and other conditions * Increased competition for land use in certain renewable technologies need to be managed * Lack of grid presence or transmission capacity in remote areas where renewable energy opportunities exist, is a major constraint in power evacuation.
WHERE WE ARE HEADING Given the present growth rate of 5 percent in coal production, India’s extractable reserves would be exhausted in 459 years, and hence there is a greater need to look at sustainable and cleaner fuels.Recent discoveries hold promise for India’s gas reserves and coal bed methane. On the nuclear front, advanced technology needs to be infused before being put for commercial use. Renewable energy, especially as wind and solar power is expected to grow rapidly and supplement the short term requirements. Over the longer term, it is expected to gain strategic importance as a sustainable fuel that would help build self-reliance in energy sources. The following figure details the estimated energy reserves in the country.
COMPARING WITH THE FUTURE CONCLUSION Thus with current global energy requirements and the shortage of resources,energy management is indeed one of the areas which we should concentrate on immediately.