EMT (HOSA)

Primary Assessment
The first element in a patient assessment; steps taken for the purpose of discovering and dealing with any life threatening problems. The six parts of primary assessment are: forming a general impression, assessing circulation, and determining the priority of the patient for treatment and transport to the hospital
Focus specifically on those that internet with airway, breathing, and circulation
Also referred to as primary survey or initial assessment
A-B-C
Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Assessed in this order if patient had signs of life
C-A-B
Circulatory (compressions)
Airway
Breathing
Assessed in this order if patient appears lifeless and has no pulse
Notes
Any vomit in the airway that enters the lungs is very serious and often fatal. Stomach contents contain solids that may obstruct the airway as well as strong acids that can cause irritation within the airway. Some are saved by defibrillation but can later die due to aspiration pneumonia or pneumonia is. Vital component of assessment is to suction the airway as soon as needed and before ventilating
Notes 2
Exsanguinating (very severe, life threatening) bleeding must be stopped immediately. Damage to major vessels, especially arteries, can cause death extremely fast. Life threatening blessings must be stopped immediately
Notes 3
Breathing and circulation are obviously vital for life. You must make sure that your patient is breathing (and adequately for sustaining life). When it appears as if they are not breathing or only taking very occasionally, ineffective breaths (agonal breathing), check for a pulse then begin CPR if necessary.
Notes 4
If immediate interventions such as bleeding control or CPR are not required, you will shift into an important but less urgent mode where you will administer oxygen appropriate for the patient’s condition and evaluate for shock
General Impression
Impression of the patient’s condition that is formed on first approaching the patient, based on the patient’s environment, chief complaint, and appearance
D.C.A.P.P.B.T.L.S.T.I.C
Deformity
Contusion
Abrasion
Puncture
Penetration
Burns
Tenderness
Laceration
Swelling
Tenderness
Instability
Crepitus
L.O.C.
Level
Of
Consciousness
A.V.P.U.
Alert
Responds to Verbal Stimuli
Responds to Painful Stimuli
Unresponsive
J.V.D
Jugular
Vein
Distension
D.C.A.P.P.
Deformities
Contusions
Abrasions
Penetrations
Paradoxial Motion
D.C.A.P.
Deformities
Contusions
Abrasions
Penetrations
B.L.S
Burns
Lacerations
Swellings
T.I.C.
Tenderness
Instability
Crepitus
P.M.S.
Pulse
Motor
Sensory
R.O.M.
Range
Of
Motion
S.A.M.P.L.E.
Signs and Symptoms
Allergies
Medications
Past Medical History
Last Oral Intake
Events Preceding the Accident
S.M.R
Spinal
Motion
Restriction
B.I.A.Ds
Blind insertion airway devices, e.g. esophageal tracheal sombitube
BSI
Body
Surface
Isolation
BVM
Bag
Valve
Mask
CNS
Central
Nervous
System
(The Brain and Spinal Cord)
FROPVP
Flow
Restricted
Oxygen
Powered
Ventilation
Device
ICP
Intracranial
Pressure
TBI
Traumatic
Brain
Injury
Afterload
The force or resistance against which heart pumps
Aneurysm
A swelling or enlargement of a part of an artery, resulting from weakening of the arterial wall
Automatic Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating
Cyanosis
Bluish color of the skin resulting from poor oxygenation of the circulating blood
Irreversible Shock
The final stage of shock, resulting in death
Neurogenic Shcok
Circulatory failure caused by paralysis of the nerves that control the size of the blood vessels, leading to widespread dilation; seen in patients with spinal cord injuries
Perfusion
Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells’ current needs
Septic Shock
Shock caused by severe infection, usually a bacterial infection
Sphincters
Circular muscles that encircle and, by contracting, constrict a duct, tube, or opening
Syncope
Fainting