elements in soils

the stable oxidation states of C
-IV, 0, II, and IV
the most abundant element in Earth’s crust
the 2nd most abundant element in Earth’s crust
the only valence state Si exists in
the composition of soils is influenced by…
the soil forming factors, particularly parent material and intensity of weathering (climate and time)
intensity of weathering can depend on…
climate and time
enrichment ratio (ER)
this describes the enrichment or depletion of an element in soils relative to the Earth’s crust
how to calculate enrichment ratio (ER)
ER = (median element concentration in soil) / (its mean concentration in the Earth’s crust)
enrichment ratios (ER) that show no depletion or enrichment
between 0.5 and 2

values that lie in this range are not different from ER = 1

enrichment ratios (ER) that show depletion
less than 0.5
enrichment ratios (ER) that show some enrichment
between 2 and 10
enrichment ratios (ER) that show strong enrichment
above 10
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