## Electron & The Periodic Table

 Photon
 tiny packets of energy
 ground state
 The state when all electrons of an atom are in the lowest possible energy levels
 Excited state
 when an electron jumps to a higher energy level, it is in its….
 Orbital
 the probability map for the hydrogen electron
 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
 impossible to know both the velocity and position of an electron at the same time
 Pauli exclusion principle
 an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, and those two electrons must have opposite spins
 Scientific contribution of Planck?
 Energy is emitte in small, specific amounts called quanta.
 Quantum
 minimum amount of energy change
 Contribution of Einstein?
 Light has properties of both waves & particles – “wave-particle duality”
 Contribution of de Broglie?
 Electrons exhibit wave properties
 Contribution of Schrodinger?
 used mathematical equations to describe the location and energy level of an electron. He developed the quantum mechanics model (the widely accepted atomic model today)
 Principal quantum number? What does it tell?
 1. energy level 2. size of the orbital 3. # of orbitals in the energy level
 What does the magnetic quantum number tell?
 1. orientation of orbital 2. the exact orbital within each sublevel
 What does the Angular Momentum Quantum Number tell?
 1. energy sublevel 2. shape of the orbital
 What does the Spin Quantum Number tell?
 1. electron spin (-1/2 or +1/2)
 How many electrons can an orbital hold? What must these electrons do?
 can hold 2. must spin in opposite directions
 Aufbau principle?
 electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first; you have to fill them in order. you cannot jump to higher ones.
 How many electrons can each energy level hold?
 1st – 2 electrons. 2nd – 8 electrons. 3rd – 18 electrons. 4th – 32 electrons.
 Hund’s rule?
 within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them
 Difference between valence and core electrons?
 Valence – on the outermost energy levels. Core – innermost energy levels.
 Difference between cation and anion?
 Cations are positive. Lose electrons. Are smaller. Anions are negative. Gain electrons. Are larger.
 How does Bohr’s model of the atom explain the line emission spectrum of hydrogen?
 Electrons exist only in orbits w/ specific amounts of energy called energy levels, therefore… 1. electrons can only gain or lose certain amts of energy –> only certain photons are produced
 Characteristics of metals?
 hard, good conductors of heat & electricity, found on the left side of the P table, high density, malleable, reflect light, high melting point
 Characteristics of nonmetals?
 can be gases, bad conuctors of electricity, low density, non-malleable
 Characteristics of metalloids? Name a widely-used element that is a metalloid?
 characteristics of both i.e. Silicon
 What is unique about halogens?
 Only family of elements that exist in all 3 states
 What is unique about noble gases?
 stable, do not form compounds, octet
 Alkali metals are the most what?
 Reactive
 On the P table, Atomic radius (size of the atom) increases…?
 To the left and down
 First ionization energy is?
 energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom
 Why are atoms larger when going down on the P table?
 1. higher energy levels have larger orbitals 2. shielding – core electrons block the attraction b/w the nucleus and the valence electron
 On the P table, first ionization energy increases…?
 up and to the right
 On the P table, melting/boiling point is highest where?
 Highest in the middle of a period
 On the P table, periods are…? Groups are…?
 periods=rows. groups=columns.
 Why are atoms smaller to the right?
 Increased nuclear charge w/o additional shielding pulls electrons in tighter
 Why are copper and chromium exceptions to electron configuration?
 Cu and Cr are able to obtain a more stable electron configuration when they take an electron from the 4s and add it to 3d. When it does this it becomes either a half full shell (Cr) or a full one (Cu) this results in a more stable compound with lower energy.
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