Electron & The Periodic Table

tiny packets of energy
ground state
The state when all electrons of an atom are in the lowest possible energy levels
Excited state
when an electron jumps to a higher energy level, it is in its….
the probability map for the hydrogen electron
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
impossible to know both the velocity and position of an electron at the same time
Pauli exclusion principle
an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, and those two electrons must have opposite spins
Scientific contribution of Planck?
Energy is emitte in small, specific amounts called quanta.
minimum amount of energy change
Contribution of Einstein?
Light has properties of both waves & particles – “wave-particle duality”
Contribution of de Broglie?
Electrons exhibit wave properties
Contribution of Schrodinger?
used mathematical equations to describe the location and energy level of an electron. He developed the quantum mechanics model (the widely accepted atomic model today)
Principal quantum number? What does it tell?
1. energy level 2. size of the orbital 3. # of orbitals in the energy level
What does the magnetic quantum number tell?
1. orientation of orbital 2. the exact orbital within each sublevel
What does the Angular Momentum Quantum Number tell?
1. energy sublevel 2. shape of the orbital
What does the Spin Quantum Number tell?
1. electron spin (-1/2 or +1/2)
How many electrons can an orbital hold? What must these electrons do?
can hold 2. must spin in opposite directions
Aufbau principle?
electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first; you have to fill them in order. you cannot jump to higher ones.
How many electrons can each energy level hold?
1st – 2 electrons. 2nd – 8 electrons. 3rd – 18 electrons. 4th – 32 electrons.
Hund’s rule?
within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them
Difference between valence and core electrons?
Valence – on the outermost energy levels. Core – innermost energy levels.
Difference between cation and anion?
Cations are positive. Lose electrons. Are smaller. Anions are negative. Gain electrons. Are larger.
How does Bohr’s model of the atom explain the line emission spectrum of hydrogen?
Electrons exist only in orbits w/ specific amounts of energy called energy levels, therefore… 1. electrons can only gain or lose certain amts of energy –> only certain photons are produced
Characteristics of metals?
hard, good conductors of heat & electricity, found on the left side of the P table, high density, malleable, reflect light, high melting point
Characteristics of nonmetals?
can be gases, bad conuctors of electricity, low density, non-malleable
Characteristics of metalloids? Name a widely-used element that is a metalloid?
characteristics of both i.e. Silicon
What is unique about halogens?
Only family of elements that exist in all 3 states
What is unique about noble gases?
stable, do not form compounds, octet
Alkali metals are the most what?
On the P table, Atomic radius (size of the atom) increases…?
To the left and down
First ionization energy is?
energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom
Why are atoms larger when going down on the P table?
1. higher energy levels have larger orbitals 2. shielding – core electrons block the attraction b/w the nucleus and the valence electron
On the P table, first ionization energy increases…?
up and to the right
On the P table, melting/boiling point is highest where?
Highest in the middle of a period
On the P table, periods are…? Groups are…?
periods=rows. groups=columns.
Why are atoms smaller to the right?
Increased nuclear charge w/o additional shielding pulls electrons in tighter
Why are copper and chromium exceptions to electron configuration?
Cu and Cr are able to obtain a more stable electron configuration when they take an electron from the 4s and add it to 3d. When it does this it becomes either a half full shell (Cr) or a full one (Cu) this results in a more stable compound with lower energy.
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