energy levels
the fixed energies an electron can have
the amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another energy level
quantum mechanical model
the modern description of the electrons in atoms
atomic orbital
a region in space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
electron configurations
the ways in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
aufbau principle
electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
Pauli exclusion principle
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons
Hund’s rule
when electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy,one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron with parallel spins
the wave’s height from zero to crest
the distance between two consecutive wave crests
the number of wave cycles to pass a given point per unit of time; represented by v
SI unit of cycles per second; can also be expressed as a reciprocal second
electromagnetic radiation
includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet waves, X-rays, and gamma rays; travels at a speed of 2.998 x 10^8
wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism; range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
atomic emission spectrum
the pattern formed when light passes through a prism or diffraction granting to separate it into the different frequencies of light it contains
ground state
when the electron has its lowest possible energy
light quanta
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
de Broglie’s equation
predicts that all matter exhibits wave-like motion
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