Effects of tp in kick performance Essay
This survey investigated the effects of a strength and kick co-ordination preparation programme on lower limb speed ( thigh, shank and pes ) , ball speed and articulatio genus extensor strength, with respects to differences between male and female football participants. A female and male squad were tested pre preparation and so post preparation after the integrating of a 6 hebdomad preparation programme in to the squad ‘s preparation agenda. The consequences of this survey are discussed with consideration to: the effects of the preparation programme ( TP ) on boot public presentation ( measured by ball speed, ms-1 ) and knee extensor strength ( Nm ) , with symposium on differences in male and females. The relationships between lower limb speeds and articulatio genus extensor strength, in relation to ball speed will besides be discussed.
Effectss of TP on boot public presentation
Kicking success in football is indicated predominately by maximal ball speed, doing it an of import determiner of kicking public presentation. In the present survey, the TP caused a important addition in ball velocity among the FTG, 13 % addition ( Fig.17 ) . This determination indicates that the coalescing of strength and kick co-ordination preparation, matching to the specific nature of football, improves football boot public presentation in females. These consequences are in understanding with surveies that applied football specific strength preparation programmes ( Gomez et al, 2008 ; De Proft et Al, 1988 ; Monolopoulos et Al, 2006 ) and found important betterments. As all surveies conducted have fluctuations of the type of preparation and the length that was provided it makes it hard to compare between surveies. However in contrast to this the MTG did non significantly better their kicking public presentation after the TP, although they did bask a 10 % betterment ( Fig.18 ) . The consequences of the MTG is in understanding with surveies by Aagard et Al ( 1996 ) and Trolle et Al ( 1993 ) , since no important betterments in kicking public presentation were gained after a preparation programme. Although one time more it is hard to pull comparings between these surveies as the enforced preparation programmes will be of their ain descriptions. The important betterment in public presentation for the FTG supports the hypothesis nevertheless the MTG consequence does non.
Although the MTG did non retroflex the FTG important betterments, they did better by 10 % . Both the 13 % betterment by the females and the 10 % betterment by the males is an indicant of versions that must hold occurred due to the TP. Resultant ball speed is the consequence of a sequence of motion from the organic structure sections, in peculiar the lower limb sections. Therefore it can be assumed that the TP implemented caused changes in some of the kinematic variables that contribute to the instep boot and accordingly increased ball speed. Table 3 shows that the agencies of thigh and shank speed at ball impact improved in FTG and thigh, shank and foot speed improved in MTG after completion of the TP.
Lower limb speeds are said to be an of import determiner of ball speed ( Levanon & A ; Dapena, 1988 ) , particularly shank speed, which has been said to be declarative of a more “ powerful ” shooting ( Monopoulos et al, 2006 ) which corresponds with the addition of shank speed at ball impact ( Table 3 ) and the addition in ball speed ( Table 2 ) . These consequences are proposing that the shank has accelerated and smartly extended about the articulatio genus ( Wickstrom, 1975 ) at a higher rate, therefore reassigning this impulse into higher ball speeds.
The MTG had a higher ball speed pre and station preparation, nevertheless the FTG benefited from a bigger betterment in kick public presentation ( Table 2 ) , therefore back uping the a priori hypothesis. It is non singular that males had a better boot public presentation than their female opposite numbers for many grounds including organic structure size and influence of old preparation, these factors may lend to the impulse of the organic structure and accordingly reassign to the kicking impulse of the lower limb sections. These consequences are in understanding with surveies by Barfield et Al ( 2002 ) , Tant et Al ( 1991 ) and the statement by Myer et Al ( 2005 ) that female jocks may particularly profit from multi-component neuromuscular preparation due to their baseline degrees of strength and power compared with their male opposite numbers.
Effectss of TP on articulatio genus extensor strength
Powerful articulatio genus extensor musculuss, should ease in a big ball speed, due to the stretch shortening rhythm features of the articulatio genus extensors ; isokinetic informations ( peak torsion, Nm ) was used to measure articulatio genus extensor strength. In the present survey the TP did non significantly affect the articulatio genus extensor strength in the MTG or the FTG, rebuting the hypothesis. Previous research has found that a 12 hebdomad strength preparation programme that focused on articulatio genus extensor strength did non assist ease betterments in public presentation but showed an addition in isokinetic and homocentric strength although this was non a important one ( Aagard et al, 1996 ) . The determination of this survey and the survey of Aagard et Al ( 1996 ) suggests that a longer training clip may be necessary for important betterments to be reported as a preparation programme every bit long as 12 hebdomads did non demo significance.
The undistinguished alterations in the FTG and MTG knee extensor musculus strength indicate that the alterations in kicking kinematics and ball velocity mentioned antecedently are non due to a general change of musculus activity of the articulatio genus extensors. However the articulatio genus extensor musculus is non the lone constituent of the articulatio genus muscular structure that would lend to kicking public presentation in football, hence in future proving the articulatio genus flexor musculuss should besides be examined.
Isokinetic musculus testing was used to measure the peak torsion of the articulatio genus extensors of the participants, but because of the nature of its usage its practical significance becomes ill-defined although this attack of proving has been used in old surveies to measure strength in athletics ( Ozcakar et al, 2005 ) . Football kicking involves a complex series of interactive motions ( Bansgbo, 1994 ) that isokinetic testing can non reflect, attributable to the fact that the nature of proving articulatio genus extensors is a individual articulation constellation and therefore has limited functional range ( Dvir, 1996 ) . This can reassign to the consequences gained as the TP did non entirely concentrate on the articulatio genus extensor musculuss but general strength integrated with kick-co-ordination all particular to football, with this idea taken into consideration it becomes apprehensible that no important betterments were gained.
In peculiar involvement to the articulatio genus extensor consequences, no betterment at all occurred in the FTG in comparing to the MTG 4 % betterment. This is a surprising discovery as it would be expected that a larger betterment should happen within the FTG due to the group holding a lower degree of strength to get down ( Table 2 ) supported by Myer et Al ( 2005 ) , go forthing more room for an betterment to be seen and versions to happen. These consequences may be an anomalousness and due to other factors that will be discussed subsequently on.
Relationships with ball speed pre and station preparation
General restrictions of the survey
The restrictions of the survey, every bit good as oppugning the quality of informations besides bring away some fruitful and interesting possible avenues that could be explored in the hereafter in relation to the subject of the survey, kick public presentation.
The survey took topographic point in a research lab scene, due to the procedures under which the information aggregation transpired, nevertheless as football takes topographic point in an outside environment, the unfamiliar milieus of the research lab could hold had an consequence on ball speeds. As Kellis and Katis ( 2007 ) province higher ball velocity values have been collected during competition in contrast to a research lab puting. To assist battle this a familiarisation twenty-four hours of proving protocols should take topographic point before informations aggregation commences, besides assisting in the cogency of the pre-test consequences. In this probe the analysis of kick public presentation took topographic point against a stationary ball, nevertheless in most footballing instances the ball would be in gesture. Toll et Al ( 2002 ) has indicated differences in ball velocity between boots performed against a stationary ball and against a turn overing ball.
Time of twenty-four hours, could impact and therefore potentially impede the consequences due to each person ‘s penchant of executing exercising as fatigue and deficiency of motive may hold causing.
The determiner of kicking public presentation in this survey was maximum ball velocity, but this does non vouch a successful boot, in respects to the ball making a specific mark e.g. a participant or a end. As already explained, when a participant is instructed to hit the ball accurately, a trade off between velocity and truth can happen with an 80 % decrease in maximum ball speed, it is hence evident that future research should concentrate on biomechanics of fast but accurate kicking combined ( Lees and Nolan, 1998 ) . Another factor non taken into history when proving or from the findings, was the positional features of the participants, nevertheless it is known through research that the demands of participants vary in respects to the place played and the playing degree ( .. ) , hence farther research of specific places should take topographic point.
As the rise of engagement in football for adult females continues to increase, this should fuel ongoing research and close spreads on the sum of literature available between the genders and accordingly assist with preparation and instruction, as scientific apprehension strengthens. Based on the consequences found, female football players do non possess the same instep kicking power as males, nevertheless this determination is unsurprising. Research on instep kicking will go on to develop due it cardinal usage in football and the gender issues, leting for farther research into the major mechanisms that result in a fast football boot and the inter segmental form that would be “ optimum ” . As betterments of kick public presentation were evident in the FTG and MTG ( important in the FTG ) it lends support to the coalescing of strength preparation and football preparation, to match to the specific nature of football and the interactive motions of the lower limbs.