Effects of Analogy Approach in Teaching Essay
Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION Many educators view teaching as organized, purposeful and deliberate efforts designed to bring about certain desirable ends in an individual. Garcia (2000) states that a teacher must know what teaching is because his concept of teaching will guide his behaviour and his own interpretation of teaching that becomes essential to his performance as a teacher. It serves as high guide as well as direction in every classroom work to achieve effective teaching-learning process. Teachers responsible for developing scientific and technological skills among students.
They play an important role in teaching to be able to achieve maximum and effective learning. However, to be able to facilitate effective learning they need to have an understanding of what is to be taught. It is from this understanding that it becomes imperative that a number of appropriate and effective strategies be carefully considered and applied to meet the needs of the students. In the emergence of the borderless world, teachers find themselves in the midst of knowledge explosion where learning is no longer confined to one state of an individual’s development.
Thus, teachers need to develop the critical thinking skills and analysis so that they can face the very complicated situations, it is imperative that mentors teach students on how to assimilate knowledge that is relevant, prepare students for the bright new world, and help them become masters not of other person but of themselves and their own destinies. Teaching science concepts require strategies that will encourage students to reflect and use their thinking skills in relation to the knowledge and information learned in science.
One of these strategies is the use of analogy, a method wherein the ideas, culture, resources and experience of the learner is used and it has a positive powerful effect when incorporated in the culture of school. It embraces the fundamental notion that not all learners are the same but all learners are able to think creatively. Students makes sense of their environment in different ways and can construct meaning based on their experiences, thus, producing unique interaction with ideas presented by a teacher.
The intent of analogy is to create personal meaning to see old ideas in a new way and is able to explore the inherent complexity of ideas in ways that reveal more personal meaning (Lasley/Matczynski; 1997 Background of the Study Analogy is “…the lifeblood…of human thinking. ” (Hofstader) The important role of analogy has been demonstrated by many examples in the history of science. In daily life, we encounter metaphors and analogies very frequently but it appears that they are often misunderstood or discounted.
In contrast, analogies are used in science to develop insights into, hypotheses and questions about, and explanations of phenomena that are usually unobservable: they must be understood. In science, two systems are analogous if they agree in the relations between their respective parts (the meaning of “relations” and “parts” below). It has often been asserted that they are fundamental to the development of new ideas.. Moreover, it is inevitable that students will enter our classes with conceptions that conflict to differing extents with our own, if only because science develops so quickly.
These differing conceptions of science are interesting “because they reveal a thought process and, by contrast, shed light on some structural features of accepted theory” Analogies provide an opportunity to teach about science as well as teaching science, but they have to be explicitly acknowledged. According to Lawson (1993) “the central goal of science is to develop satisfactory explanations for natural phenomena. ” In view of this, The Basic Education of the Grade 5 Cabuyao Central School aims to strengthen more the service instruction in all grade levels.
Science students have to be exposed to analogical reasoning to understand the nature and common arguments of science, even for those sharing Symantec’s view, because they will encounter them frequently. The researcher as among the science teacher in the department looks into this matter and found out that there are situations where a science teacher needs to think of strategies that will capture the interest of the student. However, there are times when these strategies turn out to be not effective at all. This may also be true to other schools not only here in Laguna but also in other parts of the country.
The researcher as an Elementary Science teacher observed that the students find a hard time to understand science concepts. Thus, teaching with Analogies Model was used extensively in science education to introduce students to concepts that represent complex, hard-to-visualize systems with interacting parts (e. g. , an atom, a cell, photosynthesis, an electric circuit, an ecosystem). This is one of the effective ways in order to enhance students’ greater acquisitions of knowledge and retention of concepts.
The researcher aims to contribute for the improvement of science instructions particularly in Grade VI. In addition, it aims in developing the understanding of concepts and principles through the use of analogy in teaching science. Theoretical Framework The dominant mode of research in the area of analogies in science education has been quantitative in nature (Thiele and Treagust, 1994). This study continues in that approach owing to the fact that analogies are difficult to quantify except in, for example, the length (in number of words) or the frequency of use.
Quantitative methods fall short in estimating the qualities of a given analogy in terms of its appropriateness in explaining a given topic conceptually and its effectiveness with a given population of learners due to a connection to their prior experiences and/or their degree of cognitive development. Thiele and Treagust (1994 after Friedel et al. , 1990; Gabel & Sherwood, 1980) point out that “analogies may be ineffective… if the analog is unfamiliar to the students and if the students are not at the developmental stage were they have the necessary visual imagery and analogical and correlational reasoning skills”.
Because analogies are such a significant feature of language, the uses and features of language must be considered in any discussion involving their use in any setting. Sutton (1993) states that “analogy and metaphor are customarily regarded as part of a special kind of language, separate from what we take to be ordinary speech, which we use to exchange information and to describe things in factual, literal ways”. He goes on to suggest that this separation gives learners a “false idea of language and its role in scientific understanding”.
Students makes sense of their environment in different ways and can construct meaning based on their experiences, thus, producing unique interaction with ideas presented by a teacher. The intent of analogy is to create personal meaning to see old ideas in a new way and is able to explore the inherent complexity of ideas in ways that reveal more personal meaning (Lasley/Matczynski; 1997) Sutton (1993) goes on to show how figures of speech are employed in scientific discourse to communicate understanding. For example, Darwin used a metaphor to describe the branching process of evolution as creating a “great Tree of Life” (cited in Sutton p. 217). Similes are also used to elaborate understanding as in James Hutton’s comparison of the earth being “like the body of an animal” (ibid). As products which offer greater elaboration, Sutton goes on to show how models can be used to give a point by point analysis of a phenomenon as in the “lock and key” analogy of enzyme-substrate interaction found in nearly all texts which deal directly with the concept. There are numerous other taken-for-granted examples of the adaptation of elements of existing language to describe new phenomena.
Often the novel concept had little in common with the terms conscripted to construct their description. For example, heat and electric current are both said to flow, though neither have the physical presence in the same sense as air or water. Other common examples include biochemical “pathways” and “heat sinks,” both of which allude to physical entities to describe abstractions. Self-generated analogies can and do occur spontaneously in discussion. There is no requirement that one ritualize the approach in order to communicate a scientific phenomenon. Language is of course the currency of social exchange.
Social interaction is considered by many theorists (Vygotsky most famously) to be the medium in which learning is constructed. The role of analogies in the constructivist approach is explored now. Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem The main purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of analogy approach in teaching the elementary science V in Cabuyao Central School. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the mean performance in the Pre- test and Post Test Scores of the following respondents under consideration? 1. Control Group (Conventional Approach) 1. 2 Experimental Group (Analogy Approach) 2. What is the mean performance of the Grade 5 students in Elementary Science during their grading period? 3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of the control and experimental groups in the pre-test and post-test? 4. Are the post test scores of the two groups significantly different? 5. Is there a viable difference between the performances of the group using the conventional approach and analogy approach? Research hypotheses The study posited the following hypotheses: 1.
The mean pre-test score of the students exposed to analogy approach does not significantly differ from the mean score of those who are subjected to the conventional method. 2. The mean post-test score of the students exposed to analogy approach does not significantly differ from those who are exposed to conventional method. 3. There is no significant difference between the mean gain score of the students in the pre-test and post test after being subjected to analogy approach and the conventional method. Significance of the study Science is a basic subject in the elementary, secondary and tertiary levels.
Results of this investigation are not only being useful in improving the science instruction at the Basic Education Grade 5 of Cabuyao Central School but also with other schools or institutions of similar environments. This study has particular importance to the following: Teachers The use of analogy in teaching science help the teacher assess what the learners already know or what they still need to know. It can help science teachers not only to determine possible meaning of concepts or principle and negotiate it with the students but also to redirect students’ misconceptions.
Through analogy furthermore, the study will guide the teachers in utilizing analogical relationships made by the teachers and students as a powerful means of transferring knowledge in holistic views. By constructing analogies in teaching concepts and principles in science, the teachers can see areas that appear to be trivial and areas that need to develop. In addition analogies in teaching science help the teachers select appropriate instructional materials. The teachers can construct analogical relationship that incorporates teaching strategies as well as time and task allocations for various parts of the course.
On the other hand, analogy in teaching science can further develop teachers’ creativity and ability to use various forms of metamorphic thinking such as similes, metaphors, personification, and oxymoron. Students On the part of the learners, this study will be of great help in the formulation of new ideas from general concepts to a particular one. Analogy can help students to see old ideas in new ways; it can create within the students an excitement about concepts that are both familiar and unfamiliar. The students can begin to attach new meaning to familiar ideas, thus, those ew can foster new enthusiasm for ideas. It is an effective tool in upgrading the knowledge and interest of students in science. Administration Administrators can recommend the use of analogy as a new teaching strategy to their subordinate in teaching science, in the sense that using different strategies in teaching science can assist science department heads and coordinators in gaining insight on what particular lessons in different areas in science need much attention. In analogy both teachers and students are expected to be creative, to think divergently, and to express their own ideas.
Thus, this study may help curriculum planners in developing programs for the improvement of the competency of both science teachers, head teachers and the students as well. This study can also serve as a heuristic basis for curriculum development and in conducting studies on innovative teaching strategies. Scope and limitation The study will focus on the Elementary Science V students of the Cabuyao Central School, Cabuyao Laguna enrolled this school year 2011-2012. The respondents were 80 Grade 5 pupils from two (2) heterogeneous sections.
One group will be the experimental group and the other will be the control group, with each group composed of 40 pupils. The respondents will be the researcher’s pupils in science and health. The 80 respondents were equally matched to form the two groups, the control and experimental groups. The result of the Diagnostic Test, the general average in Grade 6 taken from their form 137-A and their first and second quarter grades served as the basis for grouping the respondents. The topics to be taken up are limited to the third quarter lessons, which refer to the nature of matter.
The lessons under this topic will be the following: states of matter, properties of matter, classification of matter, composition of matter, and, changes that undergoes in matter. These lessons are based on the Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PELC) and will be taken up both in the experimental and control groups. The researcher will prepare lessons plan for the investigation. An achievement test composed of fifty items will be constructed and administered before and after the experiment and the same time, serves as the pre-test and post-test of the respondents.
Definition of Terms For the clearer understanding of the study, important terms will be used in this research, which are defined operationally and conceptually as follows: Analogy is a teaching strategy or method that will be used in the research, this is a method that uses familiar things, ideas, culture, experiences, and resources to explain things, concepts, and principles in science that are unknown to the students. Concepts and Principles are abstract ideas like laws, or any knowledge unknown or new to the students in studies of Elementary Science VI.
Control Group is the group of respondents where the traditional method of teaching is to be applied in the duration of experiment. Efficacy is the power or capacity to produce a desired effect or result; it is also another term for the word effectiveness. Experimental Group refers to the group of respondents wherein the treatment is to be applied; they are subjected to the new teaching method, the use of analogy as techniques in teaching concepts and principles of science. Grade 6 Elementary Students they are the main respondents of the experiments that are group into two, the control and experimental group.
Grade Point Average is the respondents’ previous grades or the rating in Form 137-A in grade five. Independent Variables are the variables that can be changed, altered or manipulated during the study. Lesson Plan is a guide or plan to be used by the researcher in conducting the investigation. Mental Ability is the intelligence of the respondents measured by Diagnostic test. Science Achievement is the result of the post-test to be administered to the respondents after the experimentation. Elementary Science 6 is the science subject being taught in grade 6 where the method of teaching science using analogy will apply.
Teaching Strategy or Method is a method used in presenting a particular lesson or topics. In this study, teaching science using analogy and traditional method will be used. Traditional Method is a method of teaching science using the normal way of teaching or using the ordinary teaching strategies. Mean Gain Score. It refers to the difference in scores of the pre-test and post test of the pupils in Elementary Science achievement test for both the control and the experimental groups. Post test. It is a teacher-made test composed of forty (40) item multiple-choice questions.
The test was administered to the respondents at the end of the second quarter of school year 2009-2010 after being exposed to Humor-Motivated Approach in teaching for the experimental group and the conventional method for the control group. Pre-test. It is a teacher-made test composed of 40 item multiple-choice questions. The test was given to both the experimental and the control groups prior to the teaching of the covered lessons of the study during the second quarter of school year 2009-2010, after all the lessons covered in the period has been taught. Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies, which will serve as a justification on the use of the variables, which can be found in the research paradigm. The data obtained from these sources will provide a framework for the present investigation. Analogy as a Model for Teaching and Learning Teaching science concepts and principles sometimes are difficult particularly when describing things that we cannot see or abstract concepts that we cannot fully comprehend in the first time around on the part of the students.
To overcome this common notion of students in the concept and principles of science, the use of analogy in teaching should be employed. Analogy is a comparison of something unfamiliar with something familiar to explained shared principle it is like a bridge that connects between what the teachers want the students to learn and what the students already known. As what Roberts and Kelough (2000) said, meaningful learning is a result when the learner makes connections between new experience and prior knowledge and experience that are stored in his/her long-term memory.
Glynn (1996, cited in Ruth 2001) pointed out that the basic principle of good teaching is the activation of prior knowledge to help the students learn new knowledge, and this is the very foundation for the effective use of analogy. Joyce, Calhoun and Hopkins (2002) pointed out that creative process occurs when connecting familiar concepts with unfamiliar or creating new idea from familiar idea. Different theories of analogy are employed during medieval time to answer different problems on logic, theology and metaphysics (Ashworth, Jennifer E. : 2004).
Today analogy plays an important role in problem solving (Ormrod: 2004, 388) in decision making, perception, memory, creativity, emotion, explanation, and communication and it lies behind the identification of places, objects and people (wikipedia). To facilitate learning analogy is frequently used in science discourse and it is a natural part of student’s world, therefore the student should have been given an opportunity to employ their own analogy to explain a scientific model or phenomena, but the teacher should analyse the students’ analogy to determine what type of sense the students’ are making about (Ebenezer and Hoggerty, 2005).
Analogical thinking extracts useful structural and relational information from a learner’s repertoire of familiar instances or events (the analog or source) and maps it onto the unfamiliar science concept (which is called the target). The familiar teaches the student about the unfamiliar. Analogies are interesting and motivating for students when the teacher’s analog can be enriched from the students’ own experience. If, however, the analog is unknown to or poorly visualised by the student, then s/he will feel marginalised or frustrated and this will lower his or her interest in the analogical discussion.
Interest and engagement are, therefore, crucial to learning – it is “important to begin to build the connections between the motivational and the cognitive components of student learning” (Pintrich et al. , 1993, p. 168). According to Ormrod (2004, p. 244), when a topic is new or relatively abstract to the students, the students learn more meaningful information and retrieve it more easily when analogies will be related tom the classroom subject matter.
On the other hand in the review of Duet (1991, in Harrison 2002) shows that the analogies are effective conceptual change agent because they enhance understanding by making connection between scientific concepts and the students’ life-world experience, it also helps visualize abstract ideas and also motive students to learn. In addition, drawing analogy between a problem situation and another situation can provide an insight on the part of the students on how to solve the problem, but Ormrod (p. 88) cited an advice that if one person made an incorrect analogy the problem may also be solved incorrectly as result. As what Glynn, Law, Gibson and Hawkins (1994, cited in Ruth 2001) said that, using analogy without proper guidance and in an unsystematic manner might lead to confusion and misconception, rather than the desired higher level of understanding. Actually, analogy is only a chief element of synestics (Joyce, Calhoun and Hopkins). It is a step-by-step technique used by all learners in developing creative thinking and the very heart of synectics lessons is the teachers’ ability to se various forms of metaphoric thinking or the use of analogy that can make the students to look at reality in different ways (Lasley II & Matczynski, 2007) Models for Constructing Analogy Joyce, Calhoun and Hopkins (2002) classified synectics into three types of analogy as a basis of instructional exercise: the Personal Analogy, direct Analogy and compressed Conflict. In personal analogy, it requires the students to empathize with the ideas on object to be compared; students must feel that they are part of the physical element of the problem.
It requires one to lose one self and to transform oneself into another space or object. On the other hand Direct analogy is a simple comparison of two objects or concepts. The comparisons are not necessarily identical in all aspects. Its main target is to transform the condition of the real topic or situation into another situation to see new views or idea of the concepts or problems. While the compressed conflict is a two-world description of an object in which the words seems to be very opposites or contradict to each other.
Getner &Getner (1983, in Ruth 2001) suggested that in constructing effective analogy structural mapping should be considered wherein the structure or relationship within an existing knowledge should be mapped into the target new knowledge while the superficial surface similarities are not. Another suggestion is that analogies should be categorized as within-domain analogy or a between-domain analogy. It is within-domain analogy or literal analogy when both the base and target concepts are from different domains which are not related.
Holyoak (1984, in Ruth 2001) suggested that the base concept should be categorized as either abstract or concrete, abstract concepts are those that identify the lack of physical properties, such as family relationship and independent living. Concrete concepts are those that have physical properties like baseball. The Effective Presentation of Analogy For the effective presentation of analogy that are meaningful to the students and an excellent aid in an explanation of the fundamental concepts two model have developed the Teaching-With-Analogy Model (TAM) (1994, Glynn, Law, Gibson & Hawkins, in Ruth 2001) and the Concept Anchoring Routine CAR) (1994, Bulgren, Schumaker, Deshler, in Ruth 2001). There are some differences in these two models but in the approaches, they are more similar to each other. In Concept Anchoring Routine, three steps are rhythmically labelled: Cue, Do, and Review. But these three steps are further subdivided into seven steps. On the other hand Teaching-With-Analogies Model followed six steps.
Steps followed by the leading models used in presenting the analogical lesson (Ruth , 2001) | Concept Anchoring Routine | | | |Teaching-With-Analogies Model | |Cue Announce the new concept |Introduce target concept | |Name the known concept |cue retrieval of analogy concept | |Do collect known information | identify relevant features of target and analogy | |Highlight characteristics of known concept |map similarities | |Observe characteristics of new concept |indicate where analogy breaks down | |Reveal characteristics shared | | |Review state understanding of new concept |draw conclusion | Treagust (2003) in Ebenzer and Haggerty (2005) developed a guide that focused on three aspects of teaching and learning with analogies, they are the Focus, Action and Reflection (FAR).
Below is the summary on how to use the FAR guide for analogical reasoning: | | Concept | Students | Analogy | |Focus |Is the concept difficult, |What ideas do the students already have about|Is it something your students are familiar| | |unfamiliar or abstract |the concept? |with? | | | |Draw the prediction, observation and |You may use verbal/picture | | | |explanation | | | | Likes | Unlike | |Action |Discuss the features of the analogy and the science concept. |Discuss how the analogy is unlike the science | | |Draw similarities between them. |concept. | | | | | |Outcomes | | | | |Improvements | |Reflection |Analyze the analogy, was it clear and useful, or confusing |Refocus as above in light of outcomes | Furthermore Treagust gives some cautions in using analogy. He cited that students take analogy too far and may be unable to separate it from the content being learned and student may remember only the analogy and not the concept being studied. Uncritical use of analogy may lead to misconception or confusion on the part of the students. Bligh (200, p. 94-95) added that using analogy in lectures is a risky technique, but using it accompanied by pictorial study guide did better than those using analogy alone. Below are the summary of Teaching Phase using analogy introduced by Lasley I and Matczynski (1997, p. 188-1994) Phase I: The Topic.
The researcher begins by having students share descriptive words or phrases that they associate with the topic. The teacher then writes these terms on the chalkboard as the students shared their ideas. Phase II: Direct Analogy. Once all the terms needed are listed, the teacher begins to create a direct analogy. It starts when the teacher asks the students to look at the terms on the board and think of a game, plant or machine that they associate with those terms on the board. Based from the given analogy generated by the students, the students where then ask to identify one. The selected analogy will be written on the board and become the foundation for the next phase of the lesson. Phase III: Personal Analogy.
After selecting the appropriate analogy, the students then ask to describe what it feels like to be object and analogy, the teacher writes the term down as the students provide them. The teacher should solicit students responses and need to depend students responses with “because” statements. Phase IV: Compressed Conflict or Analogy Contrast. In this phase the teacher needs to look at the students descriptive terms used during the personal analogy phase and combine those terms that tend to be opposite one another. Example: Beautiful and Dirty Phase V: New Analogy: After compressed conflict, the teacher then asks students to create a new direct analogy. The teacher gets the compressed conflict and ask the student to identify some object that has the same qualities that of compressed conflict.
Example: in compressed conflict: beautiful and dirty, New analogy: an engine in a car. After these a new option may develop: an engine in a car (the engine is dirty, but the car is beautiful). After generating a number of new possibilities, the teacher then ask the student to select one they like the best. Phase VI: Topic Focus. The teacher should return to the original theme or conceptual topic and have students provide their own reflections. Researchers and Studies on Analogy No known studies have been conducted in the Philippines about the effectiveness of analogy as a teaching concepts and principles in science. However with the use of electronic devices some studies abroad made possible.
Newby and Ertner (1994, in Joyce, Calhoun & Hapskin, 2002) performed a series of studies wherein they use analogy as strategy to approach the learning advanced of physiological concept of their students and they found out that analogy enhanced both short-and-long term and also they found out that the students increased their pleasure in learning. In the study conducted by Bulgren, Dershler, Schumaker and Lenz (2002) they found out that the use of analogical instruction that is presented in a well-crafted and systematic manner enhanced students performances on test in comparison to instruction that is in traditional lecture or discussion format. The study also revealed that the students did not only pass the test but also rather performed at more acceptable level.
This study is akin to the aforementioned literature and studies in its attempt to modify parts negate and verify finding of Gertner (1994), Schumaker, and Lenz (2002) about the effectiveness of using analogy as strategy. However, this study departs from previous studies in setting and procedures in the analogy presentation. The research will adopt the model of Treagust (1993) in presenting the analogy, which is the “Focus, Action, and Reflection Model” (FAR) The framework assumed that the effective teaching strategy used by the teacher can be reflected on the students’ understanding of science and concepts and principles, and it can be measured by administering the pre and post test.
As what is shown in the paradigm, the research will undergo into three phases; the input, a survey of the profile and grouping the respondents; the process, a development of lesson plan using analogy as a method; the testing of the effectiveness of analogy in teaching science and technology as a method in teaching. Teaching method using analogy should be compared to the traditional method of teaching science and technology to prove the effectiveness of new teaching method. It is expected that the research will come up with the effective novel technique in teaching science, the analogy. Teaching Method Teaching methods form the bridge between the child and the subject matter. This bridge enables the child to get to the other side. It makes learning easier. It also links the child and the society (Alcantara, 2006). According to Lardizabal, et. al. 1977), methods of teaching refer to the teachers’ systematic procedure of getting the lesson across the child. It must also facilitate learning and is considered effective if it makes use of the principles of learning, utilizes self-activity, considers individual differences, stimulates thinking, and provides for growth and development. Everyone has unique learning style. Everyone has strengths which can be identified and subsequently addressed and that there is no “one best style” (Alibutod , 2007). Conventional Method The conventional way of teaching science has been through lecturing. The motivation behind this method was often the convenience that comes with it.
In a lecture, an instructor follows his notes or a book while the audience listens. Although questions are often expected, this rarely happens. This method usually is not very compatible with the experimental sessions, where students are asked to prove something through an experiment, because they are not trained to question their learning, but only to follow directions. This detachment between lecturing and the experimental training is, in my opinion, a reason why often there is very little excitement from the students over the sciences. A consequence of this one-way of transmitting knowledge ( from the teacher to the students) includes a high level of dry memorization by the students.
The reason behind it consists in the lack of development of quantitative and analytical skills that comes with the traditional lecturing. As side effects, science( and in particular the physical science) are perceived as cryptic, difficult and requires a student to be “very smart”. Many conventional science teaching practices are mis-educative,” Thomas O’ Brien(2010). According to lardizabal (1997), traditional method acquaints the children with cultural heritage of the race and inculcate such traits as industry, patience, perseverance, responsibility, self sacrifice, courtesy,etc. It develops disciplined minds and trains future leaders of the country. Traditional methods are still widely used today especially in teaching at the elementary level.
Such methods include inductive, deductive, problem, project laboratory or experimental, demonstration or showing, expository and lecture. The methods are considered by many researchers “ time- tested” methods which are found to be effective. On the other hand, the traditional method being considered “ subject-centered” method is characterized by mastery or logically organized subject matter trough drills, memorization, fixed curriculum or activities formulated by the adults, strict classroom discipline, formalized instructional pattern and fixes standards by the process of compulsion, rigid control, formality and tension ( Alcantara 2006). These therefore offer the learner a tensed atmosphere and stressed feeling.
Marasigan ( 2005) in her study mentioned that, although the traditional method is still useful in some limited situations, its applicable has to be disregarded by many teachers in most if not all classroom encounters. In the conduct of her study, she found out that traditional method of teaching could have both advantages and disadvantages. She mentioned that the traditional approach calls for teacher’s monopoly of the teaching-learning process. It usually limits the class activity within the four walls of the classroom. It as well opts for conformity, expecting each student to cope up with the predetermined- learning results, stress the “ what” of learning, thus capitalizing on the use of memory work, question and answer method and see problems as insurmountable , causing the teacher to bog down in his teaching.
She as well noted that traditional method stresses the acquisition of knowledge among other things:hence, the instruction becomes subject- matter centered. Atienza ( 2007 ) noted one of the traditional method where students sit passively in the classroom while listening to the teacher. This method focuses clearly on providing instruction, with the teacher at the center of the process. Another common method is the question and answer approach where there is an exchange of discussion through question and answer between the teacher and the pupils. Also included in the traditional method is the mimetic tradition approach cited by Atienza ( 2007) in her study.
It pertains to the approach where teachers become tellers, raconteurs of truth, to be interrogators, to be in charge of classroom life, to control the text of learning, and to decide when knowledge is known. On the other hand, new approaches to teaching elementary –science are continuously being developed at present. In the dawning of new of technologies, teachers must as well equip themselves with the new strategies, methods and approaches. One of which is the present study on Analogy approach to teaching Elementary Science. Teaching Methods Teaching methods from the bridge between the child and the subject matter. This bridge enables the child to get to the other side. It makes learning easier. It also links the child and the society. ( Alcantara, 2006). According to Lardizabal, et al. ( 1977), methods of teaching refer to the teachers’ systematic procedure of getting the lesson across the child. It must also facilitate learning and is considered effective if it makes use of the principles of learning, utilizes self- activity, considers individual differences, stimulates thinking. and provides for growth and development. Everyone has unique learning style. Everyone has strengths which can be identified and subsequently addressed and that there is no “ one best style” ( Alibutod, 2007). On the other hand, Rapura (2003) stressed that some students find certain method of learning more appealing and effective than others do.
Therefore, it is up for the teacher to find ways in sustaining children’s interest towards the lesson by being resourceful and creative enough, in preparing materials and especially in his approach in teaching. According to Dr. Tan (2010), researchers all over the world are working to improve these existing algorithms, in order to utilize them to solve complex engineering design or planning problems more effectively. Still others are undoubtedly dreaming up yet unheard of techniques, drawing on the power of imagination, creativity and analogy to find better ways of doing things. Analogical models are frequently used in chemistry to enhance conceptual understanding.
For example, ball-and-stick and space-filling molecular models often are invoked to illustrate covalent bonding and to explain molecular shapes. This is their cognitive purpose and students are left to ‘accept” that bonding electrons repel each other to produce tetrahedral, pyramidal, triangular planar, and linear shapes. They are told that electrostatic repulsions “push” the bonds apart and that the negative bonding electrons are attracted to the positive nuclei. Able students create the desired mental models using “mind experiments” (Nersessian, 1992) but less imaginative students have trouble visualising the dynamic interplay of attraction and repulsion. One way to help these students is the balloon bursting analogy (students can repeat it themselves if they like)!
I used this analogy with a senior chemistry classes with striking effect (Harrison, 1997). Teaching this analogy involves three phases – Focus, Action and Reflection [which we called the FAR guide for effective analogical teaching. The dissemination of teaching-with-analogies models (Glynn, 1991; Duit, 1991) and the publication of cognitively beneficial analogies and models (Harrison & Treagust, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1998, 1999, 2000) has helped interested teachers motivate their students by providing them with effective analogies (Harrison, 2001). Teachers need a resource containing interesting analogies and the creative imagination to construct a working analogy from the shared experiences of the students in their class.
The other need is a systematic model for presenting analogies so that the analogy’s familiarity and interest is assured; the shared attributes are mapped in a way that enhances relational knowledge and a means to check that the students realize where the analogy breaks down. This strategy is available in the FAR guide for effective analogy presentation (Treagust et al. , 1998). According to Haclao(2008)we will never expect to improve Science education in our own schools unless we succeed in providing a sound science teaching in our own schools. Besides, it is our responsibility not only as educators but as citizens to know sufficient quantum of everyday learning Science in every school to update and keep pace with what the environment and scenario brings us.
Improved Science teaching depends upon educators who can move every hand to connect with each other, making things happen by volition with blends of love and dedication. It really calls for teachers to have a wide repertoire or means of assisting every one who is interested to go with the changing world achieving optimal learning. Objectives of instruction need to reflect worthwhile concepts and generalizations. Depth teaching of specifics assists learners to form and develop universal ideas involving themselves to be effective agents of positive change, responsible for outcomes and responsive of every change. The use of the mind or intellect is important for pupils to utilize in analyzing and synthesizing subject matter.
Mental development is stressed as pupils learn, achieve, and develop and the implications of learning can only be of great intensity to movers of learning if teachers are effective and efficient enough. The challenge to us teachers is to provide a different strategy, better method or solution in providing our pupils a better future. Try different approach in teaching or different method in discussing your topic like analogy for example. Based on the research contributed by Dr. Andrin(2005) Teacher’s teaching effectiveness reflects on five performance areas, namely: instruction, classroom environment, professional responsibilities, planning and preparation. In one of the key areas, instruction is the very first one.
What type of instructions is more suited or fitted to our students? He argued that teachers should keep on exploring, researching and testing different approach like analogy approach. A lot of research, reviews, presentation, and models of analogy constructions have been develop and tested in methods of teaching. Many theories currently compete for the most accurate explanation and/or predictor of the learning process. Regardless of the angle from which the instructor chooses to perceive the process, analogies are useful tools in fostering new learning by connecting the unfamiliar to existing knowledge. This research will focus only on the simplest type of analogy, which is the simile.
Generally, this type is offered as an aside in which something is used to relate only one aspect of a concept or object to that which is under study. Because of its simplicity, this type is most frequently used conversationally. The researcher aims to develop a learning guide in very informative manner, which he hopes to help co-teachers and students in learning this analogy method teaching approach science subject in particular. All models and presentations will be carefully selected as learning guide for better delivery of topics and concepts of science. Chapter III Research Methodology This chapter presents the methodology to be used in collecting the data that are necessary for the research study.
There are: (a) research design, (b) selection and description of respondents, (c) research instrumentation, (d) control of bias, (e) statistical treatment. The Basic Education of Cabuyao Central School in Cabuyao, Laguna will serve as the locale of the study. RESEARCH DESIGN The study will make use of the pre-test-post-test control group design where the respondents were matched and paired. The subjects are the two classes that were chosen carefully from two heterogeneous sections and they will call as the experimental and control group. Both groups were given a pre-test on the unit achievement test for the topic states of matter, properties of matter, composition of matter and changes in matter.
One group will undergo a treatment, which is, using analogy as a method of teaching while the other groups are subjected to the conventional method used in teaching science. After the experimentation, both groups will be given post-test to find out the effectiveness of analogy in teaching science. SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION OF RESPONDENTS The respondents were 80 Grade 5 pupils of the Basic Education of Cabuyao Central School. They are the intact classes of the researcher. The students were ranked and distributed into two different groups. Both groups were equated according to the matched-pair group design. Based on these variables, the researcher equates the groups by randomly assigning pair member, one member to each group.
The two groups will match according to their mental abilities, the grade point average based on the students Form 137-A, the result of the Mental Ability Test (Diagnostic test) secured from the office of the guidance counsellor given during the entrance of the students, and the respondents average in Science 6 from the first and second quarter period. Two classes with 40 students each will use as subject with one class designated as the experimental group and the other as the control group. The experimental group will undergo a treatment using analogy as a new teaching strategy in teaching science while the control group will undergo strategies using conventional method in teaching science. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION A. Procedure in the Development and Validation of the Achievement Test 1. Construction of the Table of Specification
The researcher used the PELC prescribed by the Department of Education scope and sequence, the scope and sequence. The topics to be included are states of matter, properties of matter, classification of matter, composition of matter and changes in matter. It is necessary to identify the appropriate instructional objectives to which test items will relate as well as to have correct representative for the test items. The test will distribute to 30% Easy, 40% Average, and 30% Difficult. 2. Development of the Achievement Test The researcher will prepare a fifty (50) item-test based on the Science syllabus, textbooks, workbooks, teacher’s manuals and the course guide of scope and sequence of the topic covered.
The test will be used to assess the students’ understanding in Elementary Science concepts and it will be based on the objectives of the Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PLC) and in the Operation Handbook in Science of BEC. The test questions will present to the head of the school and other science teachers, and to the thesis adviser for face validation and suggestions. 3. Validation of Achievement Test The constructed tests will try first to grade six of Cabuyao Central School for validation. Making try-out test is necessary for the researcher so to make inferences concerning the time element, clarity of vocabulary, and the graphic materials in the direction and questions. (Bloom, 2000).
Grade 6 pupils will choose because they have already taken Elementary Science V during their grade five and they are not part of the investigation. No time limit will prescribe for the try-out to allow examinees to finish answering all the items. But the number of students who finish earlier will be noted which serve as the basis in determining the length of time for the final form of the test. The test will check and be scored; an item analysis will apply to determine the index of difficulty and the discrimination index. Too difficult and too easy questions will eliminate. Proper revisions of the test questions will apply after the item analysis; it will be done to improve the test constructed. B. Development of the Lesson Plan 1. The Lesson Plan
The researcher will prepare two set of lesson plan of the same content, a set using the Analogy Strategy for the experimental group and another set using Conventional or traditional Method of teaching for the control group. The lessons to be prepared are based only on one-month period. The lessons prepared will present to the department chair of science and principal as well as to the thesis adviser for the content validation and approval. The content of the two-lesson plan will be the same except for the strategy to be employed. The topics covered are listed below: 1. States of matter a. Kinetic Molecular Theory b. Phase Change 2. Properties of matter a. Physical Properties b. Chemical Properties 3. Changes that undergoes in matter a. Physical Change b. Physical Change 4. Classification of matter a. Mixture b. Elements C. Compounds 5. Composition of matter a.
History and development of atomic theory b. Fundamental Particles of Matter CONTROL OF BIAS The research will be following the given situation and condition to clearly emphasize on the validity of the experiment. Teacher Both the experimental and control group are pupils of the researcher himself. Time and Schedule Two hours will be allotted in teaching Elementary Science 5 in both groups everyday following the schedules of 7:20-10:20-12:20 (MWF). Two groups will be given equal opportunities of attending the same schedule by alternately attending the first and second periods. The schedules will change alternately in the midway through the study. Classroom
Since environment can affect greatly on the students learning (Tenedero, 1998), the researcher will use only one classroom for the period of investigation. Class Monitored Attendance Attendance of respondents from both experimental and control groups will check and monitor properly by the researcher himself. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE Experiment Proper Before the formal study conduct, the researcher will submit a letter of request to the district supervisor of Cabuyao ,Laguna asking for the researcher to conduct the study among grade 5 pupils of Cabuyao central. Formal teaching will be started on the beginning of the third quarter. The two groups will attend Science Class in the morning 8:00-10:00 and 10:20-12:20 noon every (MWF).
The schedules will interchange after 10 days of investigation to obtain a more or less balanced or identical comparison. The time will properly manage and observe by the researcher during the investigation for both groups. when emergency case such as faculty meeting, school programs, suspension of classes due to bad weather condition, the researcher automatically will cancel the class to avoid an imbalance distribution of time. Both groups will expose to the same learning task on the same day except for the method of teaching to be applied. The content, extent of subject matter, motivational styles, and devices will be all the same except to the method is applied.
The pre-test will administer before the actual experiment and post-test after the experiment. The Experiment A short orientation will give to both experimental and control group. They will inform about their new schedules, room assignment, temporary section/groups, the importance of attendance and participation, and the method of teaching to be used. The researcher will introduce the method of Analogy in teaching Science to the experimental group while the conventional method to the control group. It will be done during the development of the lessons or topics as the class tackling the topics or lesson. Motivation, learning activities, and assignment will discuss to both groups except the method.
Students belonging to the experimental group will involved in the activities in making analogy or comparing the complicated concepts to the real experience, things, objects or situations. The Pre-test and Post-test The pre-test will be given to both experimental and control group. The researcher will administer the post test to both groups. The post test will be given to determine their performance improvement in Elementary Science. STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA All the data gathered will be tallied carefully, recorded and analysed. Pupils related factors would be measured through the frequency and percentage distributions. Their pre-test and post-test exam will be compare to determine any significance difference.
Computed Mean and Standard Deviation will be used to determine the performance level of the respondents of both groups. The t-test for dependent samples will be used to determine the possible presence of significant difference in the achievement in elementary science of both groups before and after treatment. Pearson r construct validity will be used to get the effects of the analogy approach on pupil performance in Elementary Science V. [pic] ———————– Independent Variable Dependent Variable Teacher- Related Factor • Conventional method of Teaching • Lecture – discussion Teaching Approach • Conventional Approach • Model approach (Analogy) Performance in Elementary Science V • 3rd grading Period Figure 1. Research Paradigm