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Educational Psychology Chapter 7: Behavioral Views and Learning

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Learning occurs when
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Experience, including practice, causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. The change may be deliberate OR unintentional, for better or for worse, correct or incorrect, and conscious or unconscious.
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Behavioral learning theories
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Explanations of learning that focus on external events in observable behaviors.
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Contiguity
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Association of two events because of repeated pairing.
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Stimulus
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Event that activates behavior.
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Response
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Observable reaction to a stimulus.
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Classical conditioning
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Association of automatic responses with new stimuli.
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Respondents
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Responses, generally automatic or involuntary, elicited by specific stimuli.
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Aristotle said that we remember things together…
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1. When they are similar. 2. When they contrast. 3. When they are contiguous. This last one is most important, because it is included in all explanations of learning by association.
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White coat syndrome
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A term used by physicians that describes people whose blood pressure, and involuntary response, goes up when it is tested in the doctor’s office, usually by someone in a white coat.
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Neutral stimulas
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Stimulus not connected to a response.
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Unconditioned stimulus (US)
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Stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response.
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Unconditioned response (UR)
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Naturally occurring emotional or physiological response.
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Conditioned stimulus (CS)
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Stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning.
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Conditioned response (CR)
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Learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
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Operants
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Voluntary, and generally goal-directed, behaviors emitted by a person or an animal.
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Operant conditioning
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Learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents.
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Antecendents
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Events that precede an action.
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Consequences
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Events that follow an action.
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Reinforcement
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Use of consequences to strengthen behavior.
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Reinforcer
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Any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will occur again.
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The two types of reinforcement are
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1. Positive reinforcement. 2. Negative reinforcement.
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Positive reinforcement
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Strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior.
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Negative reinforcement
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Strengthening behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when the behavior occurs.
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Aversive
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Irritating or unpleasant.
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Punishment
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Process that weakens or suppresses behavior. Involves decreasing or suppressing behavior.
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Punishment takes on one of two forms…
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1. Type I or presentation punishment. 2. Type II or removal punishment.
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Type I or Presentation Punishment
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Decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by presenting an aversive stimulus following the behavior.
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Type II or Removal Punishment
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Decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior.
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Continuous reinforcement schedule
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Presenting a reinforcer after every appropriate response.
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Intermittent reinforcement schedule
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Presenting a reinforcer after some but not all responses.
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There are two types of intermittent reinforcement schedules…
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1. Interval schedule. 2. Ratio schedule.
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Interval schedule
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Length of time between reinforcers.
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Ratio Schedule
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Reinforcement based on the number of responses between reinforcers.
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Extinction
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The disappearance of a learned response.
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Stimulus control
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Capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents to cause behaviors.
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Effective instruction delivery
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Instructions that are concise, clear, and specific, and that communicate an expected result. Statements work better than questions.
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Cueing
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Providing a stimulus that “sets up” a desired behavior.
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Prompt
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A reminder that follows a cue to make sure the person reacts to the cue.
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Applied behavior analysis
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The application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior.
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Behavior modification
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Systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change behavior.
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Differential reinforcement
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Ignoring inappropriate behaviors, while being sure to reinforce appropriate behaviors as soon as they occur.
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To be effective, praise must…
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1. Be contingent on the behavior to be reinforced. 2. Specify clearly the behavior being reinforced. 3. Be believable.
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Premack principle
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Principle stating that a more-preferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity. Sometimes referred to as Grandma’s Rule. Example: First, do what I want you to do, and then you may do what you want to do.
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Shaping
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Reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior.
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Successive approximations
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Small components that make up a complex behavior.
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Task analysis
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System for breaking down a task hierarchically into basic skills and subskills.
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Positive practice
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Practicing correct responses immediately after errors. Students replace one behavior with another.
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Reprimands
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Criticisms for misbehavior, rebukes.
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Response cost
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Punishment by loss of enforcers.
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Social isolation
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Removal of a disruptive student for 5 or 10 minutes.
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Time out
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Technically, the removal of all reinforcement. In practice, isolation of a student from the rest of the class for a brief time.
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Good behavior game
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Arrangement where a class is divided into teams and each team receives demerit points for breaking agreed-upon rules of good behavior.
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Group consequences
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Rewards or punishments given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violating rules of conduct.
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Contingency contract
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A contract between the teacher and a student specifying what the student must do to earn a particular reward or privilege.
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Token reinforcement system
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System in which tokens for academic work and/or good behavior can be earned and exchanged for a reward.
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Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
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The processes of understanding the “why” of a problem behavior.
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Positive behavior supports (PBS)
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Interventions designed to replace problem behaviors with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student.
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Precorrection
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Involves identifying the context for a student’s misbehavior, clearly specifying the alternative expected behavior, modifying the situation to make the problem behavior less likely then rehearsing the expected positive behavior with powerful reinforcers.
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Self-management
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Use of behavioral learning principles to change your own behavior.
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Self-reinforcement
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Controlling your own reinforcers.
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Steps of self-management
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1. Goal setting. 2. Monitoring and evaluating progress. 3. Self-reinforcement.
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Social learning theory
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Theory that emphasizes learning through observing others.
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Enactive learning
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Learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions.
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Observational learning
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Learning by observation and imitation of others – vicarious learning.