Education and Training Study Guide

Self-contained Classroom
Refers to an arrangement in which the same teacher and group of students remain in one classroom for most of the day, with one teacher teaching most or all subjects.

Collaborative Learning
Learning that takes place when students work in groups to discuss and solve problems together.

The courses taught in a school, what is taught in each course, and how the courses are sequenced.

Mo based on, or affiliated with, any religion.

Concrete Thinking
Thinking about things that are actually experienced.

Physical items that are part of a portfolio, such as projects or papers, examples from a related volunteer activity, and academic and other awards.

Certified Teacher
A person who has met the state requirements for teacher preparation.

Personal Portfolio
An organized collection of materials and information that shows how personal knowledge, skills, and attitudes have developed over time.

Money that is given for a specific purpose, such as educational expenses, that do not have to be repaid.

To express thoughts into words.

A flat wooden board with a handle. A sheet of paper – usually containing the alphabet, a prayer or two, and Roman numerals – was pasted on the board. A thin, flat piece of clear animal horn was attached to cover and protect the paper. Used during the Colonial Period.

Common Schools
Public schools available to children from all levels of society.

Someone who learns a skilled trade by watching and helping someone in that trade. In early America, some apprentices worked without pay for an agreed-upon period in exchange for their learning.

Limits. Immigration laws set limits for people coming to the United States from other countries.

Normal Schools
Schools that prepared men and women with the necessary skills to become teachers.

Educational Standards
Statements of what students are expected to know and be able to do at certain points in their education. They are set by national organizations, states, and many school districts, sometimes called instructional goals.

Charter School
A public school that operated under a charter with freedom from many of the regulations that apply to traditional public schools.

Back-to-basics Movement
Move toward focusing teaching on the basics of reading, writing, and math.

Competency-based Education
Teaching methods that require students to demonstrate their abilities in subject areas.

Global Economy
The interconnection of economies of nations around the world through finance, international companies, and trade.

School Funding Gap
The problem that occurs when schools in districts with lower levels of income taxes have a higher proportion of students who are low-income and need a higher level of services.

Intimidation or bullying through e-mail, social networking sites, text messaging, or other means.

Achievement Gap
The differences in learning and graduation rates among schools, often linked to differences in school population and funding.

Zero Tolerance Policy
A policy that states that prohibited behaviors and actions will not be tolerated – no exceptions.

An adult who commits to a long-term relationship with a student to provide support, guidance, and help.

Individual Education Program (IEP)
A written educational plan developed for a specific student with disabilities.

Learning Styles
Preferred methods of absorbing and processing information.

Placing students with special needs who show the ability to keep up with the curriculum in a regular class.

Learning Diversity
Differences in learning based on abilities, interests, or experiences.

Pull-out Programs
Programs that allow students to leave the regular classroom for certain periods for the day for the additional instruction to meet their particular needs.

Aggressive Communicator
One whose verbal or nonverbal communication aims to hurt or out other people down in a disrespectful way.

One who creates situations that help students learn by developing activities that actively involve students in learning, rather than just presenting information.

Chain of Command
The official organizational structure that tells who reports to whom.

Active Listening
Asking questions and restating ideas to discover the true message of the sender by giving verbal listening.

Determining how much a student or class has learned or is in the process of learning.

Instructional Objectives
Clear statements of what students will achieve as a result of a lesson that will be shown in an observable way.

Smooth ways to move from one part of a lesson to the next.

Guided Practice
An activity designed to reinforce and apply learning that includes feedback from other students or the teacher.

Lesson Plans
Detailed outlines for teaching a specific topic or skill, including what will be taught, how it will be taught, why it is being taught, and how learning will be evaluated. Sometimes called instructional plans or teaching plans.

Learning Activities
The learning experiences used to help students learn the content and reach the instructional objectives.