Education and Girls Essay Example
Education and Girls Essay Example

Education and Girls Essay Example

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  • Pages: 18 (4774 words)
  • Published: September 14, 2017
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The scheme acts as a basis for leading us in the restoration of our progress. It acknowledges the necessity for collaborative endeavors to improve girls' educational access. It emphasizes the significance of education in propelling countries ahead and ensuring a promising future for their citizens, regardless of economic standing. The educational attainment of a child's mother has the most substantial impact on their future welfare.

The resolution to the education predicament can be achieved by taking into account the viewpoints of governments, local communities, children, parents, and teachers who possess extensive knowledge about the unsolved issues. Complex global discussions are not required.

To ensure that their education ideas are aligned within a framework, it is vital to provide them with ample support. To accomplish this objective, our plan entails dedicating at least $1.4 billion over the next three years. This


funding will not only offer extra aid to governments but also bolster global cooperation in tackling girls' education.

In Malawi, the Minister for Education introduced free schooling, resulting in a significant rise in enrolment rates. This serves as an exemplary model of how a well-designed program and dedicated political support can lead to successful implementation. It is noteworthy that the UK will hold the Presidencies of both the G8 and the EU in 2005.

Meda Wagtole has stated that our primary focus is achieving gender equality in education globally. This commitment not only benefits girls but also their families, communities, and countries.

This report specifically addresses the importance of education and the barriers that hinder girls from receiving a quality education. It highlights issues such as cost, poor school environments, societal obstacles, and how conflict affects girls' education.

The report als

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explores strategies to make girls' education more affordable, improve school conditions, and support organizations dedicated to this cause. It emphasizes the need for international efforts to prioritize girls' education in sub-Saharan Africa where less than 25% of impoverished girls have access to secondary schooling.

Despite over 75 countries worldwide failing to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of achieving gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005, it remains crucial that we persistently strive for greater progress. The positive news is that there is increasing international commitment and consensus on measures to enhance girls' education.

The text below outlines DFID's actions, in collaboration with others, to ensure gender equality in education for men, women, boys, and girls.

  • DFID will spend over ?1.4 billion on education within the next three years to narrow the funding gap.
  • In partnership with UNICEF, DFID aims to strengthen coordination efforts for girls' education.
  • DFID will prioritize gender equality in education on the political agenda through its role as co-chair of the Fast-Track Initiative (FTI) and the UK's Presidencies of the G8 and EU.
  • DFID will support programs that prioritize girls' education by providing financial aid to governments in developing countries who want to remove school fees.
  • DFID will increase educational opportunities for girls through partnerships with development organizations and civil society.
  • Additionally, DFID will raise awareness within the UK about girls' education in impoverished countries.

It is important to note that educating girls not only contributes to healthier, wealthier, and safer communities and societies but also helps reduce child mortality rates, improve maternal health outcomes,and combat HIV/AIDS spread.

The target date for the achievement of all other MDGs, which is why it was set in 2005, is supported

by the achievement of this goal. The Dakar Conference in 2000 was also held for this reason.

Donors have committed to guaranteeing that all states with a strong education program will receive the required resources for its implementation. However, multiple factors, such as a lack of global political leadership and an annual worldwide funding gap of around $5.6 billion for education, have impeded progress.

Within national education systems, both girls and poor families who cannot afford to send their children to school face a lack of programs and resources aimed at enhancing access to and quality of education. This document signifies the UK's renewed dedication towards promoting girls' education, marking a new phase in their efforts. The urgency for action is imperative.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were established in September 2000 through the signing of the Millennium Declaration by 188 heads of state worldwide. One of these goals was to achieve gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005. Unfortunately, it appears that over 75 countries are unlikely to meet this objective.

Our failure to meet our commitment is a result of insufficient dedication. Women, regardless of their employment status, play a vital role in societies as they have a significant impact on the lives of their children. Investing in girls' education is crucial for the future success of any country as it greatly empowers females, allowing them to assert their rights and achieve social status.

The provided examples demonstrate the substantial impact of education on a woman's ability to achieve lucrative employment, establish a successful household, and combat the spread of diseases such as HIV and AIDS.

Having an educated adult female parent has multiple benefits for children.

Firstly, it increases the probability of them being vaccinated against childhood diseases by 50%. Additionally, if a child is born to an educated adult female, their chances of surviving into adulthood are higher. In Africa specifically, children with female parents who receive five years of primary education have a 40% greater chance of living beyond the age of five. The accompanying image depicts a South African girl celebrating her high school graduation.

( © Giacomo Pirozzi/Panos ) Educated women are less likely to be disadvantaged. Giving girls an additional year of schooling beyond the average increases their future earnings by 10 to 20 percent. If we had achieved gender equality by 2005, over 1 million childhood deaths could have been prevented. For every new HIV infection in Africa involving a boy, there are consequences.

In Swaziland, a country with high HIV prevalence, approximately two-thirds of school attending adolescent girls are not infected with the virus. However, there has been a recent surge in new infections among young girls aged three to six.

The significance of girls' education is undeniable, considering that two-thirds of out-of-school girls in Uganda are HIV positive. However, it has been found that those who have received a secondary education are four times less likely to contract HIV. Despite the challenges faced in accessing education for many individuals, including girls, it remains an essential human right.

Previous global agreements have emphasized the significance of addressing gender equality in education, particularly by working towards eliminating discrimination against women (refer to Annex 2). However, there continue to be 58 million girls and 45 million boys who are being denied their right to education, even at the primary level.

Consequently, over 75 countries face the risk of not attaining the target set by the 2005 MDG for equal enrollment of both genders in primary and secondary education.

According to current trends, more than 40% of states in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk of not achieving gender parity in primary, secondary, or both levels of education by 2015. This is equivalent to seven out of every thirty states with available data (Figure 1).

1: The progress towards achieving gender equality in primary registrations is uncertain. There is a possibility that the goal may not be reached by 2015, but it is probable that it will be achieved by 2015 or earlier. It should be noted that the goal was already accomplished in 2000, but there is insufficient data on this matter. It is crucial to emphasize that these statistics differ greatly across continents, countries, and communities. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa alone, there are currently 23 million8 girls who are not attending school.

South and West Asia has more than 40 states where there are over 22 million out-of-school girls. However, India and Pakistan have the highest concentration of these girls. In Niger, less than one-third of school-aged girls are enrolled in primary school.

In Rwanda, the primary school attendance rate for girls is above 80%. In Mali, the enrollment rate for girls in primary school is approximately six times greater in Bamako city compared to rural areas.

Emphasizing the importance of girls' education is crucial for building a brighter future. The worrisome issue of low enrollment rates for girls, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and Pakistan, persists in secondary schools. Impoverished parents encounter significant barriers due to the costly nature

of secondary education.

The gross registration rate for girls in secondary instruction is a mere 19%, with exceptionally low rates of 5% in Niger, Tanzania, and Chad. While there may be some outliers, generally speaking, countries where girls lag behind boys in primary education also experience even more alarming disparities between genders in secondary education.

The graph in Annex 3 shows the remarkable advancement achieved by different states, including Bangladesh, which has shown substantial improvement.

The enrollment of females and males in secondary school is now balanced, whereas in 1990 there were twice as many males compared to females. In Nepal, around nine females for every ten males are enrolled in primary school, while the ratio was seven females for every ten males in Kenya in 1990.

Since 2003, the elimination of school user fees has resulted in a growth of over 1 million children enrolling in primary school. This article serves as a basis for identifying and implementing the required actions to fulfill our responsibilities while also reminding us to accelerate our educational endeavors. Our initiatives focus on supporting education in Nigeria, which currently has 7.

The federal Ministry of Education in Nigeria, with the assistance of UNICEF and DFID, is implementing a program to promote gender equality and ensure universal primary education. Presently, there are 3 million primary school-age children who do not attend school, with girls accounting for 62 percent of that population. To effectively achieve this goal, DFID has granted ?26 million which will directly benefit boys and girls in six northern provinces.

The authorities of Kenya enterprise SPRED III (Strengthening of Primary Education) has been allocated $10.8 million to reduce the financial burden on parents for

primary education. The registration numbers under this program increased from 5.9 million to over 7 million in the first year and continue to rise.

Listening to the perspectives of local people has proven invaluable in identifying the main barriers that prevent girls from entering school, remaining in school, and effectively learning. Our country's experience is also offering concrete evidence of how governments are overcoming these challenges.

We are using the foundation of what works as the basis for our actions to accelerate progress on girls' education.


DFID's expertise in promoting girls' education is based on our work in 25 priority countries. Our education efforts in these countries aim to support governments in providing education for all, especially for girls.

Figure 1.2 displays the distribution of girls without basic education, revealing that around 75% of them reside in these 25 states. There is a growing global backing for development efforts.

Although approximately $4 billion is provided annually in international bilateral support for education, a majority of this funding is directed towards secondary and university education. In contrast, less than $1 billion is designated each year for basic education. This results in an insufficient allocation of less than $2 per school-aged child in developing nations. Therefore, it is clear that there is an immediate need to enhance our endeavors in achieving the MDGs globally, especially in countries struggling with poverty reduction.

There is potential for enhancing the distribution of missing children who are not currently enrolled in school. The distribution of these children in DFID's 25 priority states, such as India, Rwanda, Lesotho, Cambodia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Vietnam, South Africa, Nepal Mozambique Ghana DRC and Nigeria can

be observed in Figure 1.2. Outside of these priority states, the percentage of children not attending school is 28%. Nevertheless, within the priority states themselves this figure significantly rises to 72%.

In Sierra Leone, Uganda (no separate information available), Kenya, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Afghanistan, China and Ethiopia parents can assume that their girls receive a quality education. The reason for this is that in numerous states and communities across the developed and underdeveloped world there exist obstacles that prevent girls from obtaining a quality education.

However, in many other places around the world, providing every child with an education seems to be difficult. There are five main challenges that make it hard for girls to access education. These challenges include:

  • the cost of education – ensuring that communities, parents, and children can afford schooling;
  • poor school environments – ensuring that girls have access to a safe school environment;
  • the weak position of women in society – ensuring that society and parents value the education of girls;
  • conflict – ensuring that children who are excluded due to conflict have access to schooling; and

societal exclusion – ensuring girls are not disadvantaged on the basis of caste, ethnicity, religion or disability. These challenges are not exhaustive but recurring themes in many countries.

They are additional obstacles that women need to overcome in order to benefit from quality education. As donors, we need to support countries in addressing these challenges. Our role is one of encouragement, not leadership. And

our support is most effective when it is aligned with each country's own national strategies to reduce poverty and make progress in education.

In particular, we need to support states in keeping in place the essential elements of quality education for girls ( see Box 2. 1 ) .

What factors hinder girls from receiving a quality education? Box 2.

Critical components of quality education for girls Schools – a school located within a reasonable distance; with proper facilities for girls; offering a safe environment and transportation; free from violence. If not, parents are unlikely to send their daughters to school. Teachers – presence of a teacher; possessing necessary skills; having appropriate teaching materials. Is the teacher a female? Are there policies to recruit teachers from minority communities? If not, girls may not learn as much at school and drop out.

Are the students healthy, safe, and free from the burden of family obligations or the need to work to support their family? Is there access to clean water nearby? If not, they may never have the opportunity to attend school. Do the families have healthy parents who can financially support the household? Does the family prioritize education for girls and can they afford the cost of schooling? If not, economic necessity may prevent the girl from going to school. Will the family's and the girl's status in the community improve with an education? Will new opportunities arise? If not.

Instructions regarding the involvement of the family may be lacking. Are governments providing sufficient resources to ensure an adequate number of school spots? Are they compensating teachers properly? Are teachers receiving adequate training? Is

the government collaborating with other agencies to maximize educational opportunities? Is there a clear strategy and budget that address the unique circumstances faced by girls? If not, it is unlikely that the aforementioned conditions will be met. Donors, on the other hand, play a role in supporting governments to ensure equitable allocation of resources. Are donors actively contributing to addressing the challenges faced by girls? Are they aware of local customs and traditions? Do they prioritize the needs of the countries over their own agendas or existing programs? If not, governments may not be in a position to provide a fair opportunity for all girls to receive a quality education.

Educating girls is expensive for families. The education of girls is considered costly to parents both economically and socially. There are four types of costs: tuition fees and other direct school fees; indirect fees (such as PTA fees, teachers’ levies, and fees for school building and edifice); indirect costs (such as transportation and uniforms); and opportunity costs (such as lost family or paid labor).

These costs have a significant effect on whether and which children receive education. The book "Girls' Education: Towards a Better Future for All" highlights the additional expenses associated with educating girls, such as special transportation or chaperones for safety and 'decency'. For the 211 million economically active children, the cost of attending school could result in families losing crucial income.

12 A directive can significantly decrease the likelihood of girls getting married and increase the cost of dowry to unaffordable levels. Families believe that investing in sons rather than daughters is more lucrative as boys are more likely to secure employment and earn

higher wages.

The main obstacle for households in educating their girls is the expensive cost of instruction. DFID has prioritized many states for support, which have either eliminated tuition fees or are working towards their elimination. For example, all our Asia priority states, except Pakistan, do not have tuition fees, and several Africa priority states have recently abolished school fees. In Africa.

The removal of school fees has resulted in a significant increase in registrations. In Ghana, a girl does her homework on a chalkboard painted on the wall of her house, while her older sister, with a baby on her back, checks her exercise book.

(© Sven Torfinn/Panos) However, it has also resulted in an increased financial burden for governments. For example, in Uganda, it is estimated that the total number of primary school students will increase by 58 percent between 2002 and 2015, necessitating more than double the number of teachers.

Teachers' wages make up the largest expense in instruction budgets, causing a significant burden. Many authorities have raised both their instruction budget and the portion allocated to primary instruction in order to fund these additional costs. However, the challenge still remains to find enough money to maintain a high-quality education while also reducing other expenses that hinder children from low-income families.

The main barrier preventing girls from receiving a quality education is often the impact of AIDS on their families' economic situation. Girls are often the first ones to be pulled out of school in order to take care of sick family members or to assume responsibility for their siblings when death or illness occurs.

13 The sudden increase in poverty that comes with having AIDS

in the family negatively impacts the family's ability to afford school. The fear of contracting the disease through mistreatment or exposure during the journey to school particularly affects girls and may result in decreased attendance. Orphans are especially vulnerable to this risk.

In the most severe cases, some individuals may resort to prostitution to provide for themselves and their families. In Zambia, the majority of child prostitutes are orphaned.

The majority of street kids in Lusaka are often not included in support programs, which mainly target other vulnerable groups. Girls may face a poor and unwelcoming school environment, which may differ from the environment that boys find acceptable. The school environment in many countries reflects the physical and sexual violence against women that is prevalent in society.

Physical maltreatment and abduction not only violate girls' fundamental human rights but also hinder their access to education. Parents may choose to keep their daughters at home if they believe the school is too far away. Violence against girls and women has been recognized as a significant obstacle to girls' education in various DFID programs. DFID provides support to Soul City in South Africa.

There is an educational telecasting soap opera that aims to raise awareness about violence against girls and women in developing countries. It is important to adopt better recruitment procedures and improve working conditions in order to increase the number of female teachers, who often serve as important role models for the young women they teach. Teachers also need training to effectively support girls and intervene when violence is imminent, including addressing cases where teachers themselves are the perpetrators of violence.

Early response systems should be put in place to

prevent such incidents from occurring. Additionally, efforts should be made to address all types of discrimination in the classroom. It is important to have a monitoring and evaluation system that effectively involves teachers, especially when there are instances of teacher authority being violated.

Governments also require more knowledgeable officials and teachers who possess the knowledge, understanding, and perspective to ensure that girls have access to high-quality education. It is necessary to have expertise in order to assess the problems and solutions for the education system based on the country's context and actual needs, rather than relying on development agencies' trends. Within communities, women hold a vulnerable position in society.

Girls face numerous obstacles in order to receive an education. DFID's new collaboration with UNICEF aims to support Nigeria's government in overcoming many of these challenges. This partnership will help address the difficulties girls face in gaining access to and staying in school. It is essential to address several societal constraints before girls can attend school and fully benefit from their education. Often, girls have limited control over their futures.

Early marriage is a global phenomenon, with many families desiring the social and economic advantages it offers. In both Bangladesh and Afghanistan, over 50% of girls are married before the age of 18.

16 Adolescent pregnancy has various negative consequences for girls, including hindering their education. In addition, girls are more likely to quit school due to their domestic responsibilities. Moreover, they often face discrimination regarding the quality of schools they attend and the amount of money their parents are willing to spend on their education.

Despite the progress being made, achieving gender equality is likely to take a long time.

The UK's own history highlights the connection between women's societal position and the need for better education for girls. These factors mutually support each other, although change happens slowly. Box 2.

In the UK, there has been significant progress in promoting gender equality in education. Prior to the 1960s, many girls in Britain were encouraged to pursue commercial and technical paths in secondary school, which limited their access to higher-paying jobs. However, these trends started to change by the mid-1980s.

In the past, it was not common for girls to excel or pursue advanced study in subjects like math or science at the university level. However, there was a significant increase in girls' academic achievements in the 1990s, which can be attributed to various factors such as families prioritizing their daughters' education.

A shift in the perception of gender experiences was seen during the 1960s and 1970s, particularly in relation to women's movements. This was accompanied by governmental initiatives focused on comprehensive schools, higher education advancement, test system reform, gender equality schemes in local education authorities and schools. One such policy involved implementing areas in schools exclusively for girls.

Strong policies against bullying and harassment, as well as the promotion of science and mathematics for girls, were implemented. Moreover, the growth in the service sector contributed to the increased demand for girls in the labor market.

Currently, there is a concern as to why the improved academic performance of girls has not resulted in equal opportunities and empowerment in the workforce. The obstacles preventing girls from obtaining a quality education are numerous, with conflict posing the greatest harm to their wellbeing. Girls, especially those in fragile states, are particularly susceptible

to abuse and limited access to schooling due to various reasons such as conflict, resource scarcity, and population issues.

High levels of corruption and political instability differentiate these states due to their inability to establish functional government structures, including ensuring the safety of their citizens.

Managing the economy, providing essential services, combating violence and disease, as well as tackling illiteracy and economic failure are particularly concentrated in underprivileged countries.

Of the 104 million children who are not enrolled in primary school worldwide, approximately 37 million reside in vulnerable regions. A significant portion of these children are girls. The reasons for girls' lack of attendance at school may be attributed to fears of violence or their expected role as caregivers within their families.

In Rwanda, it is estimated that up to 90% of child-headed families are led by girls, particularly those who have been victims of violence in conflict situations.

Injury can hinder learning. Over 100,000 girls were involved in conflicts during the 1990s, yet they are often overlooked in demobilization programs. Our programs in Rwanda focused on providing compassionate support and educational assistance to emphasize the significance of education in promoting peace and safeguarding human resources in post-conflict countries. Our efforts serve as a reminder of the necessity to link education with initiatives aimed at building democracy.

Enhance wellness systems and provide societal protection for the most impoverished individuals while implementing multilingual and multicultural policies. Addressing social exclusion is crucial in ensuring equal access to education for girls, as certain marginalized groups, particularly those based on caste, are more prone to being excluded from school.

In Nepal, Dalit girls are approximately twice as likely to be excluded from school as higher

caste girls. In Malawi, exclusion from school is also influenced by factors such as ethnicity, faith or disablement.

Muslim girls face a higher likelihood of exclusion compared to non-Muslim counterparts. Disabled children, especially disabled girls, are a significant group that is denied access to education. According to a recent World Bank report, it is estimated that only approximately 1-5% of all disabled children and young people attend schools in developing countries.

At the World Conference on Particular Education Needs in Salamanca, 92 states and 25 international administrations made a commitment to provide educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities. The main challenge is to support governments in fulfilling this commitment and ensuring quality education for marginalized groups. In India, we have collaborated with the government to address social exclusion through the Education for All program called SSA.


Chapter Three

Tackling girls’ instruction on the land As outlined in the old chapter. states desiring to develop and implement a policy of advancing girls’ instruction face a figure of challenges. But for every challenge. there are illustrations of assuring good pattern that should organize the footing of the manner in front.

DFID will back up authoritiess to:

  • strengthen political leading and empower adult females ;
  • make girls’ instruction low-cost ; and
  • brand schools work for all misss

We will besides back up NGOs.

Support for spiritual and other voluntary administrations will help authorities improve poverty reduction schemes and education sector programs to enhance girls' access to quality education. Additionally, increased and flexible support will be provided to assist with the development and implementation of national programs. From 2001, DFID's bilateral support commitments for basic education averaged at? 150 million per year.

Since the World Education Forum at Dakar

and the Millennium Summit in 2000, the UK has made significant increases in its commitments to education programs and intends to continue doing so. As a result, we anticipate spending an average of ?350 million per year on education (a total of over ?1 billion) from 2005-06 to 2007-08.

This would essentially replicate the resources going directly to education programs in developing countries since we first embraced the MDGs. In addition to our bilateral contributions, we anticipate spending $370 million through multilateral agencies, bringing our total funding for education in the next three years to over $1.4 billion.

We will support governments in their efforts to promote political leadership and empowerment of women. We recognize the influential role that national leaders can play in advocating against gender inequality. This is exemplified by the heads of governments in Oman and Morocco.

China, Sri Lanka, and Uganda have emphasized their support for girls' education, with women leaders being particularly effective. The Minister of Education in Ethiopia, who is also the chair of the Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE), has played a crucial role in the country's progress.

Successes in Ethiopia, Yemen, Mexico, India, and Egypt highlight the significance of local leadership.

However, political leadership requires a demand for change at the grassroots level in order to gain sufficient support for new initiatives.

Policy makers and those who shape policy may redirect the resources set aside for girls to other purposes. Box 3.1 provides an example of sustained political support for girls' education. The case of Yemen illustrates the efforts made to support girls' education despite being one of the world's poorest countries and having significant gender disparities in education.

Gross registration rates for

girls are only two-thirds as high as those for boys at primary school and only half as high at secondary school. In 2003, the Yemen government committed itself to full primary registration by 2015, with a special emphasis on gender equity. Girls' education is now a crucial component of Yemen's poverty reduction scheme and the Basic Education Development Strategy.

Some of the factors that made this possible include:

personal commitment from prominent Yemenis, for example the first Minister for Human Rights in the 2000 government; sustained donor commitment, with UNICEF's support to the 2000 Girls' Education Strategy being a prominent example; and the establishment of Girls' Education Units in the Ministry of Education at key and local levels.

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