Earth Science Study Guide, Earthquakes

anticline
Fold in rocks that arches upward so older rocks are at the center.

basin
circular syncline that forms a depression in the ground

compression
stress that squeezes rocks together

confining stress
stress from the weight of material above buried rocks that does not allow the rocks to change shape

deformation
change in the shape of rocks due to stress

dip-slip fault
fault in which the dip of the fault plane is inclined relative to the horizontal surface of the earth

dome
circular anticline that forms a mound on the ground

fault zone
fracture along which one side has moved relative to the other

fold
bend in rocks caused by compression

footwall
block of rocks that is beneath a dip-slip fault plane

fracture
crack in rocks caused by stress

hanging wall
block of rocks that is above a dip-slip fault plane

joint
break in rocks along which there is no movement

monocline
bend in rocks that causes them to be inclined relative to the horizontal

normal fault
dip-slip fault in which the hanging wall drops down relative to the footwall

reverse fault
dip-slip fault in which the hanging wall pushes up relative to the footwall

shear
parallel stresses on rocks that push them past each other in opposite directions

slip
distance rocks move along fault

stress
force per unit area on rocks

strike-slip fault
fault in which the dip of the fault plane vertical

syncline
fold in rocks that bends downward so younger rocks are at the center

tension
stress that pulls rocks in opposite directions

thrust fault
reverse fault which the dip of the fault plane is nearly horizontal

wavelength
horizontal distance between two corresponding points on adjacent waves, such as the distance
between two crests or two troughs

amplitude
height of a wave from the center to the top of a crest (or bottom of a trough)

body wave
type of seismic wave that travels through Earth’s interior; either a primary wave or a secondary
wave

crest
highest point of a wave

earthquake
ground movement caused by the sudden release of energy stored in rocks

elastic rebound theory
theory that earthquakes occur when rocks break and snap back to their original
position after being deformed elastically until they cannot deform any more

epicenter
point on the surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

focus
point beneath the surface where rocks break and start an earthquake

love wave
type of seismic wave that travels over the surface and has a side-to-side motion

primary wave (p-wave)
type of seismic wave that travels through Earth and arrives first at a seismometer

rayleigh wave
type of seismic wave that travels over the surface and has an up-and-down motion

secondary wave (s-wave)
type of seismic wave that travels through Earth and arrives second at a seismometer

surface wave
type of seismic wave that travels along the surface of the ground; either a Love wave or a
Rayleigh wave

trough
lowest point of a wave

tsunami
large water wave cause by any shock to ocean water, such as an earthquake, meteorite impact,
landslide, or nuclear explosion

Mercalli intensity scale
scale of earthquake intensity based on what people feel and the extent of damage caused by the earthquake

moment magnitude scale
scale of earthquake magnitude based on the total amount of energy released by an earthquake

Richter magnitude scale
scale of earthquake magnitude based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave produced by an earthquake

seismogram
paper record of seismic activity produced by a seismograph

seismograph
older type of device that measures and records seismic waves using a suspended, weighted pen that writes on a drum of paper that moves with the ground

seismometer
modern device that uses electronic motion detectors to measure and record seismic waves and other ground motions

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