Draupadi by mahashweta devi Essay
“Draupadi” by Mahasveta Devi Translated with a Foreword by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak Translator’s Foreword I translated this Bengali short narrative into English as much for the interest of its scoundrel. Senanayak. as for its rubric character. Draupadi ( or Dopdi ) . Because in Senanayak I find the closest estimate to the First- World bookman in hunt of the Third World. I shall talk of him foremost. On the degree of the secret plan. Senanayak is the army officer who captures and degrades Draupadi. I will non travel so far as to propose that. in pattern. the instruments of First-World life and probe are complicit with such gaining controls and such a debasement. ’
The estimate I notice relates to the author’s careful presentation of Senanayak as a pluralist aesthete. In theory. Senanayak can place with the enemy. But pluralist aesthetes of the First World are. randomly. participants in the production of an exploitatory society. Hence in pattern. Senanayak must destruct the enemy. the endangering other. He follows the necessities and eventualities of what he sees as his historical minute.
There is a convenient colloquial name for that every bit good: pragmatism. Thus his emotions at Dopdi’s gaining control are assorted: sorrow ( theory ) and joy ( pattern ) . Correspondingly. we grieve for our Third-World sisters ; we grieve and rejoice that they must lose themselves and go every bit much like us as possible in order to be “free” ; we congratulate ourselves on our specialists’ cognition of them. Indeed. like ours. Senanayak’s undertaking is interpretative: he 1. For amplifications upon such a suggestion. see Jean-Fran~oisL yotard. La Condition post-moderne: Rappod Sur B sauoir ( Paris. 1979 ) .
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382 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi”
expressions to decode Draupadi’s vocal. For both sides of the rift within himself. he finds analogies in Western literature: Hochhuth’s The Deputy. David Morrell’s First Blood. He will cast his guilt when the clip comes. His self-image for that unsure hereafter is Prospero. I have suggested elsewhere that. when we wander out of our ain academic and First-World enclosure. we portion something like a relationship with Senanayak’s do~blethinkW. ~h en we speak for ourselves.
we urge with strong belief: the personal is besides political. For the remainder of the world’s adult females. the sense of whose personal micrology is hard ( though non impossible ) for us to get. we fall back on a colonialist theory of most efficient information retrieval. We will non be able to talk to the adult females out at that place if we depend wholly on conferences and anthologies by Western-trained sources. As I see their exposure in women’s-studies diaries or on book jackets-indeed. as I look in the glass-it is Senanayak with his anti-Fascist paper-back book that I behold. In inextricably mixing historico-political specificity with the sexual derived function in a literary discourse. Mahasveta Devi invites us to get down obliterating that image.
My attack to the narrative has been influenced by “deconstructive pattern. ” I clearly portion an malaise that would declare daring theories of reading excessively elitist to get by with radical feminist stuff. How. so. has the pattern of deconstruction been helpful in this context?
The facet of deconstructive pattern that is best known in the United States is its inclination toward infinite regre~sionT. ~h e facet that involvements me most is. nevertheless. the acknowledgment. within deconstructive pattern. of probationary and intractable get downing points in any fact-finding attempt ; its revelation of complicities where a will to knowledge would 2. See my “Three Feminist Readings: Mccullers. Drabble. Habermas. ” Union Seminu9 Quarterly Review 1-2 ( Fall-Winter 197 % 80 ) . and “French Feminism in an International Frame” ( forthcoming in Yak French Studies ) .
3. I develop this statement in my reappraisal of Paul de Man’s Allegories ofReading: Figural Language in Rowseau. Nietzsche. Rilke. and Prowt ( forthcoming in Studks in the Novel ) . Mahasveta Devi teaches English at Bijaygarh College in Jadavpur. India. an establishment for propertyless adult females. She has published over a twelve novels. most late Chotti Munda ebang Tar Tir ( “Chotti Munda and His Arrow” ) . and is a fecund journalist. composing on the battle of the tribal provincial in West Bengal and Bihar. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak is professor of English at the University of Texas at Austin. The transcriber of Derrida’s De la grammtologte. she has published essays on Marxist feminism. deconstructive pattern. and modern-day literature and is presently finishing a book on theory and pattern in the humanistic disciplines. Critical Inquiry Winter 1981 383
create resistances ; its insisting that in unwraping complicities the criticas- topic is herself complicit with the object of her review ; its accent upon “history” and upon the ethico-political as the “trace” of that complicity-the cogent evidence that we do non populate a clearly defined critical infinite free of such hints ; and. eventually. the recognition that its ain discourse can ne’er be equal to its vitamin E ~ A cubic decimeter eT. ~hi s is clearly non the topographic point to lucubrate each point upon this list.
I should. nevertheless. indicate out that in my introductory paragraphs I have already situated the figure of Senanayak in footings of our ain forms of complicity. In what follows. the relationship between the tribal and classical characters of Draupadi. the position of Draupadi at the terminal of the narrative. and the reading of Senanayak’s proper name might be seen as produced by the reading pattern I have described. The complicity of jurisprudence and evildoing and the category deconstruction of the “gentlemen revolutionists. ” although apparently minor points in the reading of the narrative as such. take on greater importance in a political context.
I can non take this treatment of deconstruction far plenty to demo how Dopdi’s vocal. inexplicable yet fiddling ( it is in fact about beans of different colourss ) . and ex-orbitant to the narrative. marks the topographic point of that other that can be neither excluded nor re~uperated. ~
“Draupadi” foremost appeared in Agnigarbha ( “Womb of Fire” ) . a aggregation of slackly connected. short political narrations. As Mahasveta points out in her debut to the aggregation. “Life is non mathematics and the human being is non made for the interest of political relations. I want a alteration in the present societal system and do non believe in mere party politic^ . ”^ Mahasveta is a middle-class Bengali collectivist intellectual in her 1950ss. She has a master’s grade in English from Shantiniketan. the celebrated experimental university established by the businessperson poet Rabindranath Tagore.
Her repute as a novelist was already good established when. in the late ’70s. she published Hajar Churashir Ma ( “No. 1084’s Mother” ) . This novel. the lone one to be imminently published in English interlingual rendition. remains within the excessively sentimental parlance of the Bengali 4. This list represents a distillment of suggestions to be found in the work of Jacques Derrida: see. e. g. . “The Exorbitant. Question of Method. ” Of Grammatology. trans. Spivak ( Baltimore. 1976 ) ; “Limited Inc rudiment. ” trans.
Samuel Weber. Glyph 2 ( 1977 ) ; “Ou commence et remark finit un corps enseignant. ” in Politiques de laphilosophie. erectile dysfunction. Dominique Grisoni ( Paris. 1976 ) ; and my “Revolutions That every bit Yet Have No Model: Derrida’s ‘Limited Inc. ’ ” Diacritics 10 ( Dec. 1980 ) . and “Sex and History in Wordsworth’s The Prelude ( 1805 ) IXXIII” ( forthcoming in Tern Studies in Literature and Language ) .
5. It is a mark of E. M. Forster’s acute perceptual experience of India that A Pussage to India contains a glance of such an ex-orbitant tribal in the figure of the punkha puller in the courtroom.
6. Mahasveta. Agnigarbha ( Calcutta. 1978 ) . p. 8. 384 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi” novel of the last twenty-odd old ages. 7 Yet in Aranyer Adhikar ( “The Rights [ or. Occupation ] of the Forest” ) . a serially published novel she was composing about at the same clip. a important alteration is noticeable. It is a meticulously researched historical novel about the Munda Insurrection of 1899-1900. Here Mahasveta begins seting together a prose that is a montage of literary Bengali. street Bengali. bureaucratic Bengali. tribal Bengali. and the linguistic communications of the tribals.
Since the Bengali book is illegible except to the about 25 literate per centum of the about 90 million talkers of Bengali. a big figure of whom live in Bangladesh instead than in West Bengal. one can non talk of the “Indian” response of Mahasveta’s work but merely of its Bengali receptiom8 Briefly. that response can be described as a general acknowledgment of excellence ; incredulity sing the content on the portion of the businessperson readership ; some accusals of extremism from the electoral Left ; and esteem and a sense of solidarity on the portion of the nonelectoral Left. Any extended response survey would see that West Bengal has had a
Left-Front authorities of the united electoral Communist parties since 1967. Here suffice it to state that Mahasveta is surely one of the most of import authors composing in India today. Any sense of Bengal as a “nation” is governed by the putative individuality of the Bengali cubic decimeter a n g ~ a g vitamin E ( . M~ eanwhile. Bengalis difference if the purest Bengali is that of Nabadwip or South Calcutta. and many of the twenty-odd developed idioms are inexplicable to the “general talker. ” ) In 1947. on the Eve of its going from India. the British authorities divided Bengal into West Bengal. which remained a portion of India. and East Pakistan. Punjab was likewise divided into East Punjab ( India ) and West Pakistan.
The two parts of Pakistan did non portion cultural or lingual ties and were separated by about eleven 100 stat mis. The division was made on the evidences of the concentration of Muslims in these two parts of the subcontinent. Yet the Punjabi Muslims felt themselves to be more “Arab” because they lived in the country where the first Muslim emperors of India had settled about seven hundred old ages ago and besides because of their propinquity to West Asia ( the Middle
7. For a treatment of the relationship between academic grades in English and the production of radical literature. see my “A Vulgar Inquiry into the Relationship between Academic Criticism and Literary Production in West Bengal” ( paper delivered at the Annual Convention of the Modern Language Association. Houston. 1980 ) . 8. These figures are an norm of the 1971 nose count in West Bengal and the jutting figure for the 1974 nose count in Bangladesh.
9. See Dinesh Chandra Sen. History ofBengali Language and Literature ( Calcutta. 191 1 ) . A sense of Bengali literary patriotism can be gained from the ( doubtless apocryphal ) study that. upon returning from his first fact-finding circuit of India. Macaulay remarked: “The British Crown presides over two great literatures: the English and the Bengali. ” Critical Inquiry Winter 1981 385
East ) . The Bengali Muslims-no uncertainty in a class-differentiated way-felt themselves constituted by the civilization of Bengal.
Bengal has had a strong presence of left-of-center intellectualism and battle since the center of the last century. before. in fact. the word “Left”
entered our political stenography. 1° West Bengal is one of three Communist provinces in the Indian Union. As such. it is a beginning of considerable political annoyance to the cardinal authorities of India. ( The person province authoritiess have a good trade more liberty under the
Indian Constitution than is the instance in the U. S. ) Although officially India is a Socialistic province with a assorted economic system. historically it has reflected a spectrum of the Right. from military absolutism to nationalist category benevolence. The word “democracy” becomes extremely explainable in the context of a mostly nonreader. multilingual. heterogenous. and unpoliticized electorate.
In the spring of 1967. there was a successful provincial rebellion in the Naxalbari country of the northern portion of West Bengal. Harmonizing to Marcus Franda. “unlike most other countries of West Bengal. where peasant motions are led about entirely by middle-class leading from Calcutta. Naxalbari has spawned an autochthonal agricultural reform leading led by the lower classes” including tribal cultivator^ . ^^ This curious alliance of provincial and rational sparked off a figure of Naxalbaris all over India. 12 The mark of these motions was the long-established subjugation of the landless peasantry and itinerant farm worker. sustained through an unofficial government-landlord collusion that excessively easy circumvented the jurisprudence. Indeed. one might state that statute law seemed to hold an oculus to its ain future circumvention.
It is deserving noting that this alliance of provincial and
intellectual-with long histories of apprenticeship exactly on the side of the intellectual-has been recuperated in the Occident by both terminals of the mutual opposition that constitutes a “political spectrum. ” Bernard-Henri Levy. the ex-Maoist Gallic “New Philosopher. ” has implicitly compared it to the May 1968 “revolution” in France. where the pupils joined the workers. 13 In France. nevertheless. the pupil individuality of the motion had remained clear. and the pupil leading had non brought with it sustained attempts to undo the privilege of the rational. On the other manus. “in much the same mode as many American college presidents 10. See Gautam Chattopadhyay.
Communism and the Freedom Movement in Bengal ( New Delhi. 1970 ) .
11. Marcus F. Franda. RadicalPolitics in West Bengal ( Cambridge. Mass. . 1971 ) . p. 153. Iam thankful to Michael Ryan for holding located this accessible history of the Naxalbari motion.
12. See Samar Sen et Al. . explosive detection systems. . Naxalbari and After: A Frontier Anthology. 2 vols. ( Calcutta. 1978 ) .
13. See Bernard-Henri Levy. Bangla Desh: Nationalisme duns la rivolution ( Paris. 1973 ) . 386 Gayatm’ Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi”
hold described the protest of American pupils. Indian political and societal leaders have explained the Naxalites ( protagonists of Naxalbari ) by mentioning to their sense of disaffection and to the influence of authors like Marcuse and Sartre which has apparently dominated the heads of immature people throughout the universe in the sixtiess. ”14
It is against such convalescences that I would subject what I have called the subject of category deconstruction with mention to the immature gentlemen revolutionists in “Draupadi. ” Senanayak remains fixed within his category beginnings. which are similar to those of the gentlemen revolutionists. Correspondingly. he is contained and judged to the full within Mahasveta’s narrative ; by contrast. the gentlemen revolutionists remain latent. resistance. Even their leader’s voice is merely heard formulaically within Draupadi’s purdah. I should wish to believe that it is because they are so persistently engaged in undoing category containment and the resistance between reading ( book acquisition ) and doing-rather than maintaining the two aesthetically everlastingly separate-that they inhabit a universe whose authorization and outline no text-including Mahasveta’s-can encompass.
In 1970. the inexplicit ill will between East and West Pakistan flamed into armed battle. In 1971. at a important minute in the battle. the armed forces of the authorities of India were deployed. apparently because there were confederations between the Naxalites of West Bengal and the freedom combatants of East Bengal ( now Bangladesh ) . “If a guerrillastyle insurgence had persisted. these forces would doubtless hold come to rule the political relations of the motion. It was this tendency that the Indian governments were determined to pre-empt by intercession. ” Taking advantage of the general ambiance of exultation at the licking of West Pakistan. India’s “principal national challenger in South Asia”15 ( this was besides the first clip India had “won a war” in its millennia1 history ) . the Indian premier curate was able to check down with exceeding badness on the Naxalites. destructing the rebellious subdivisions of the rural population. most significantly the tribals. every bit good. The twelvemonth 1971 is therefore a point of mention in Senanayak’s calling.
This is the scene of “Draupadi. ” The narrative is a minute caught between two deconstructive expressions: on the one manus. a jurisprudence that is fabricated with a position to its ain evildoing. on the other. the undoing of the binary resistance between the rational and the rural battles. In order to hold on the minutiae of their relationship and engagement. one must come in a historical micrology that no preface can supply. 14. Franda. Extremist Politics. pp. 163-64. See besides p. 164 n. 22. 15. Lawrence Lifschultz. [ email protected ]: The unfinished Revolution ( London. 1979 ) . pp. 25. 26.
Critical Inquiry Winter 1981 387
Draupadi is the name of the cardinal character. She is introduced to the reader between two uniforms and between two versions of her name: Dopdi and Draupadi. It is either that as a tribal she can non articulate her ain Sanskrit name ( Draupadi ) . or the tribalized signifier. Dopdi. is the proper name of the ancient Draupadi. She is on a list of wanted individuals. yet her name is non on the list of appropriate names for the tribal adult females.
The ancient Draupadi is possibly the most famed heroine of the Indian heroic poem Mahabharata. The Mahabharata and the Ramayana are the cultural certificates of the alleged Aryan civilisation of India. The tribes predate the Aryan invasion. They have no right to heroic Sanskrit names. Neither the interdiction nor the significance of the name. nevertheless. must be taken excessively earnestly. For this pious. domesticated Hindu name was given Dopdi at birth by her kept woman. in the usual temper of benevolence felt by the oppressor’s married woman toward the tribal bond retainer. It is the violent death of this mistress’ hubby that sets traveling the events of the narrative.
And yet on the degree of the text. this elusive and causeless name does play
a function. To theorize upon this function. we might see the Mahabharata itself in its colonialist map in the involvement of the alleged Aryan encroachers of India. It is an accretive heroic poem. where the “sacred” geographics of an ancient conflict is easy expanded by wining coevalss of poets so that the secular geographics of the spread outing Aryan settlement can show itself as indistinguishable with it and therefore warrant itself. 16 The complexness of this huge and anon. undertaking makes it an uncomparably more heterogenous text than the Ramayana.
Unlike the Ramayana. for illustration. the Mahabharata contains instances of assorted sorts of affinity construction and assorted manners of matrimony. And in fact it is Draupadi who provides the lone illustration of polyandry. non a common system of matrimony in India. She is married to the five boies of the impotent Pandu. Within a patriarchal and patronymic context. she is exceeding. so “singular” in the sense of odd. odd. uncoupled. 17 Her hubbies. since they are husbands instead than lovers. are lawfully pluralized. No recognition of paternity can procure the Name of the Father for the kid of such a female parent. Mahasveta’s narrative inquiries this “singularity” by puting Dopdi foremost in a comradely. militant. monogamous matrimony and so in a state of affairs of multiple colza.
In the heroic poem. Draupadi’s legitimized pluralisation ( as a married woman among hubbies ) in uniqueness ( as a possible female parent or prostitute ) is used to show male glorification. She provides the juncture for a violent dealing between work forces. the efficient cause of the important conflict. Her firstborn hus- 16. For my apprehension of this facet of the Mahabharata. I am indebted to Romila Thapar of Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
17. I borrow this sense of uniqueness from Jacques Lacan. “Seminar on ‘The Purloined Letter. ’ ” trans. Jeffrey Mehlman. Yak Gallic Studies 48 ( 1972 ) : 53. 59. 388 Gayatm’ Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi”
set is about to lose her by default in a game of die. He had staked wholly he owned. and “Draupadi belongs within that all” ( Mahabharata 65:32 ) . Her unusual civil position seems to offer evidences for her quandary as good: “The Scriptures prescribed one hubby for a adult female ; Draupadi is dependent on many hubbies ; therefore she can be designated a cocotte. There is
nil improper in conveying her. clothed or unclothed. into the assembly” ( 65:35-36 ) . The enemy head begins to draw at Draupadi’s sum’ . Draupadi mutely prays to the incarnate Krishna. The Idea of Prolonging Law ( Dharma ) materializes itself as vesture. and as the male monarch pulls and pulls at her sum’ . at that place seems to be more and more of it. Draupadi is boundlessly clothed and can non be publically stripped. It is one of Krishna’s miracles.
Mahasveta’s narrative rewrites this episode. The work forces easy win in depriving Dopdi-in the narrative it is the apogee of her political penalty by the representatives of the jurisprudence. She remains publically naked at her ain insisting. Rather than salvage her modestness through the inexplicit intercession of a benign and Godhead ( in this instance it would hold been godlike ) companion. the narrative insists that this is the topographic point where male leading Michigans.
It would be a error. I think. to read the modern narrative as a defense of the antediluvian. Dopdi is ( every bit heroic as ) Draupadi. She is besides what Draupadi-written into the patriarchal and important sacred text as cogent evidence of male power-ould non be. Dopdi is at one time a palimpsest and a contradiction.
There is nil “historically implausible” about Dopdi’s attitudes. When we foremost see her. she is believing about rinsing her hair. She loves her hubby and maintain political religion as an act of faith toward him. She adores her sires because they protected their women’s award. ( It should be recalled that this is thought in the context of American soldiers engendering bastards. ) It is when she crosses the sexual derived function into the field of what could merely go on to a adult female that she emerges as the most powerful “subject. ” who. still utilizing the linguistic communication of sexual “honor. ” can scoffingly name herself “the object of your hunt. ” whom the writer can depict as a terrorizing superobject-“an unarmed mark. ” As a tribal. Dopdi is non romanticized by Mahasveta.
The determination shapers among the revolutionists are. once more. “realistically. ” bourgeois immature work forces and adult females who have oriented their book acquisition to the land and therefore begun the long procedure of undoing the resistance between book ( theory or “outside” ) and spontaneousness ( pattern or “inside” ) . Such combatants are the hardest to crush. for they are neither tribal nor gentlemen. A Bengali reader would pick them out by name among the
characters: the 1 with the assumed names who bit off his lingua ; the 1s who helped the twosome escape the ground forces cordon ; the 1s who neither fume nor drink tea ; and. above all. Arijit. His is a stylish first name. tinsel Sanskrit. with no allusive paleonymy and a significance that fits the narrative a spot excessively good: winning over enemies. Yet it is his voice that gives Dopdi the bravery to salvage non herself but her companions.
Of class. this voice of male authorization besides fades. Once Dopdi enters. in the concluding subdivision of the narrative. the postscript country of lunar flux and sexual difference. she is in a topographic point where she will eventually actfor herself in non “acting. ” in disputing the adult male to ( en ) counter her as live or misrecorded nonsubjective historical memorial. The army officer is shown as unable to inquire the important ontological inquiry. What is this? In fact. in the sentence depicting Dopdi’s concluding biddings to the sahib’s collapsible shelter. the agent is losing. I can be forgiven if I find in this an fable of the woman’s battle within the revolution in a shifting historical minute. As Mahasveta points out in an aside. the folk in inquiry is the Santal. non to be confused with the at least nine other Munda folks that inhabit India.
They are besides non to be confused with the alleged Harijans. who. unlike the tribals. are Hindu. though likely of distant “non-Aryan” beginning. In giving the name Harijan ( “God’s people” ) to the Harijans. Mahatma Gandhi had tried to concoct the kind of pride and sense of integrity that the folks seem to possess. Mahasveta has followed the Bengali pattern of naming each alleged untouchable caste by the name of its menial and dirty undertaking within the stiff structural functionalism of institutionalised Hinduism. 18 I have been unable to reproduce this in my interlingual rendition.
Mahasveta uses another distinction. about on the degree of imitation: the Sikh and the Bengali. ( Sikhism was founded as a reformed faith by Guru Nanak in the late 15th century. Today the approximately 9 million Sikhs of India live chiefly in East Punjab. at the other terminal of the huge Indo-Gangetic Plain from Bengal. The tall. muscular. turbanned. and bearded Sikh. so unlike the rebuff and purportedly rational Bengali. is the stereotypic butt of gags in the same manner as the Polish community in North
America or the Belgian in France. ) Arjan Singh. the diabetic Sikh captain who falls back on the Granth-sahib ( the Sikh sacred book-I have translated it “Scripture” ) and the “five Ks” of the Sikh faith. is presented as all muscle and no encephalons ; and the wily. inventive. corrupt Bengali Senanayak is of class the army officer full of a Keatsian negative capableness. lg
The full energy of the narrative seems. in one reading. directed toward interrupting the seemingly clean spread between theory and pattern in 18. As a consequence of the infliction of the capitalist manner of production and the Imperial Civil Service. and monolithic transitions of the lowest castes to Christianity. the invariable individuality of caste and trade no longer holds. Here. excessively. there is the possibility of a taxonomy micrologically deconstructive of the caste-class resistance. working heterogeneously in footings of the societal hierarchy.
19. If so the theoretical account for this character is Ranjit Gupta. the ill-famed inspector general of constabulary of West Bengal. the delicate textuality. in the involvement of a political place. of Senanayak’s word picture in the narrative takes us far beyond the bounds of a referencea clef: I am thankful to Michael Ryan for proposing the possibility of such a mention. 390 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi”
Senanayak. Such a clean interruption is non possible. of class. The theoretical production of negative capableness is a pattern ; the pattern of cut downing down Naxalites brings with it a theory of the historical minute. The premise of such a clean interruption in fact depends upon the premise that the single topic who theorizes and patterns is in full control. At least in the history of the Indo-germanic tradition in general. such a crowned head topic is besides the legal or legitimate topic. who is indistinguishable with his stable P a T R O n ymi ~ . I~t ~m ight hence be interesting that Senanayak is non given the distinction of a first name and family name. His patronymic is indistinguishable with his map ( non of class by the jurisprudence of caste ) : the common noun means “army head. ”
In fact. there is the least intimation of a uncertainty if it is a proper name or a common denomination. This may be a review of the man’s seemingly self-adequate individuality. which sustains his theory-practice juggle act. If so. it goes with what I see as the undertaking of the narrative: to interrupt this bonded individuality with the cuneus of an unreasonable fright. If our cocksureness of the efficient-information-retrieval and talk-to-the-accessible attack toward Third-World adult females can be broken by the cuneus of an unreasonable uncertainness. a feeling that what we deem gain might spell loss and that our pattern should be forged consequently. so we would portion the textual consequence of “Draupadi” with Senanayak.
The italicized words in the interlingual rendition are in English in the original. It is to be noticed that the combat words on both sides are in English. Nation-state political relations combined with transnational economic systems produce war. The linguistic communication of war–offense and defense-is international. English is standing in here for that nameless and heterogenous universe linguistic communication. The distinctive features of use belong to being obliged to get by with English under political and societal force per unit area for a few centuries. Where. so. is at that place a “pure” linguistic communication? Given the nature of the battle. there is nil bizarre in “Comrade D~ P vitamin D I. ” ~Itl I s portion of the undoing of opposites-intellectual-rural. tribalist-internationalist-that is the hesitating fundamental law of “the resistance. ” “the incorrect side” of the jurisprudence. On the right side of the jurisprudence. such deconstructions. interrupting down national differentiations. are operated through the invasion of kingemperor or capital.
20. The relationship between phallocentrism. the patriarchate. and clean binary resistances is a permeant subject in Derrida’s review of the metaphysics of presence. See my “Unmaking and Making in To the Lighthouse. ” in Women and Language in Literature and Society. erectile dysfunction. Sally McConnell-Ginet. Ruth Borker. and Nelly Furman ( New York. 1980 ) . 21. “My dearest Sati. Through the walls and the stat mis that separate us I can hear you stating. ‘In Sawan it will be two old ages since Companion left us. ’ The other adult females will nod. It is you who have taught them the significance of Comrade” ( Mary Tyler. “Letter to a Former Cell-Mate. ” in Naxalban and After. 1:307 ; see besides Tyler. My Old ages in an Indian Prison [ Harmondsworth. 19771 ) .
Critical Inquiry Winter 1981 391
The lone exclusion is the word “sahib. ” An Urdu word significance “friend. ” it came to intend. about entirely in Bengali. “white adult male. ” It is a colonial word and is used today to intend “boss. ” I thought of Kipling as I wrote “Burra Sahib” for Senanayak.
In the affair of “translation” between Bengali and English. it is once more Dopdi who occupies a funny in-between infinite. She is the lone 1 who uses the word “counter” ( the “n” is no more than a nasalisation of the diphthong “ou” ) . As Mahasveta explains. it is an abbreviation for “killed by constabulary in an brush. ” the codification description for decease by constabulary anguish. Dopdi does non understand English. but she understands this expression and the word. In her usage of it at the terminal. it comes cryptically close to the “proper” English use. It is the endangering entreaty of the objectified topic to its politico-sexual enemy-the provisionally silenced maestro of the subject-object dialectic-to encounter-
“counter”-her. What is it to “use” a linguistic communication “correctly” without “knowing” it?
We can non reply because we. with Senanayak. are in the opposite state of affairs. Although we are told of specializers. the significance of Dopdi’s vocal remains unrevealed in the text. The educated Bengali does non cognize the linguistic communications of the folk. and no political coercion obliges him to “know” it. What one might falsely believe of as a political “privilege”- cognizing English properly-stands in the manner of a deconstructive pattern of language-using it “correctly” through a political supplanting. or runing the linguistic communication of the other side.
It follows that I have had the usual “translator’s problems” merely with the curious Bengali spoken by the tribals. In general we educated Bengalis have the same racist attitude toward it as the late Peter Sellers had toward our English. It would hold been abashing to hold used some version of the linguistic communication of D. H. Lawrence’s “common people” or Faulkner’s inkinesss. Again. the specificity is micrological. I have used “straight English. ” whatever that may be.
Rather than restrain the narrative with footers. in decision I shall name a few points of information:
Page 393: The “five Ks” are Kes ( “unshorn hair” ) ; kachh ( “drawers down to the knee” ) ; karha ( “iron bangle” ) ; kirpan ( “dagger” ) ; kanga ( “comb” ; to be worn by every Sikh. hence a grade of individuality ) . Page 396: “Bibidha Bharati” is a popular wireless plan. on which hearers can hear music of their pick. The Hindi movie industry is fecund in bring forthing mush films for ingestion in India and in all parts of the universe where there is an Indian. Pakistani. and West Indian labour force. Many of the movies are versions from the heroic poems. Sanjeev Kumar is an adored histrion. Since it was Krishna who rescued Draupadi from her quandary in the heroic poem. and. in the movie the soldiers watch. Sanjeev Kumar encounters Krishna. there might be a touch of textual sarcasm here.
392 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi”
Page 397: “Panchayat” is a purportedly elected organic structure of village selfgovernment. Page 399: “Champabhumi” and “Radhabhumi” are antediluvian names
for certain countries of Bengal. “Bhumi” is merely “land. ” All of Bengal is therefore “Bangabhumi. ”
Page 399: The Canis aureus following the tiger is a common image.
Page 400: Modern Bengali does non separate between “her” and “his. ” The “her” in the sentence get downing “No companion will. . . ” can hence be considered an interpretati~n. ~~
Page 401: A saree conjures up the long. many-pleated piece of fabric. complete with blouse and underwears. that “proper” Indian adult females wear. Dopdi wears a much-abbreviated version. without blouse or underwears. It is referred to merely as “the fabric. ”
Name Dopdi Mejhen. age 27. hubby Dulna Majhi ( deceased ) . legal residence Cherakhan. Bankrajharh. information whether dead
or alive and/or aid in apprehension. one hundred rupees. . . An exchange between two liveried uniforms.
FIRSTL IVERYW: hat’s this. a tribal called Dopdi? The list of names I brought has nil like it! How can anyone hold an unlisted name? SECONDD: raupadi
Mejhen. Born the twelvemonth her female parent threshed rice at Surja Sahu ( killed ) ’~a t Bakuli. Surja Sahu’s married woman gave her the name. First: These officers like nil better than to compose every bit much as they can in English. What’s all this material about her?
SECONDM: ost ill-famed female. Long wanted in many. . .
Dossier: Dulna and Dopdi worked at crops. revolving between Birbhum. Burdwan. Murshidabad. and Bankura. In 1971. in the celebrated Operation Bakuli. when three small towns were cordonned off and machine gunned. they excessively lay on the land. forging dead. In fact. they were the chief perpetrators. Murdering Surja Sahu and his boy. busying upper-caste Wellss and tubewells during the drouth. non give uping those three immature work forces to the constabulary. In all this they were the main provokers. In the forenoon. at the clip of the organic structure count. the twosome could non be found.
The blood-sugar degree of Captain Arjan Singh. the designer of Bakuli. rose at one time and proved yet once more that diabetes can be a consequence of anxiousness and depression. Diabetes has twelve husbands-among them anxiousness. Dulna and Dopdi went underground for a long clip in a Neanderthal darkness. The Particular Forces. trying to pierce that dark by an armed hunt. compelled rather a few Santals in the assorted territories of West Bengal to run into their Maker against their will. By the Indian Con- 22. I am thankful to Soumya Chakravarti for his aid in work outing occasional jobs of English equivalent word and archival research.
stitution. all human existences. regardless of caste or credo. are sacred. Still. accidents like this do go on. Two kinds of grounds: ( I ) . the belowground couple’s accomplishment in self-concealment ; ( 2 ) . non simply the Santals but all tribals of the Austro-Asiatic Munda folk appear the same to the Particular Forces.
In fact. all around the infamous wood of Jharkhani. which is under the legal power of the constabulary station at Bankrajharh ( in this India of ours. even a worm is under a certain constabulary station ) . even in the sou’-east and southwest corners. one comes across hair-raising inside informations in the eyewitness records put together on the people who are suspected of assailing constabulary Stationss. stealing guns ( since the snatchers are non constantly good educated. they sometimes say “give up your chambers” instead than give up your gun ) . killing grain agents. landlords. usurers. jurisprudence officers. and administrative officials. A black-skinned twosome ululated like constabulary Sirens before the episode. They sang happily in a barbarian lingua. inexplicable even to the Santals. Such as:
Samaray hijulenako March goekope
Hende rambra keche keche
Pundi rambra keche keche
This proves once and for all that they are the cause of Captain Arjan Singh’s diabetes. Government process being every bit inexplicable as the Male Principle in Sankhya doctrine or Antonioni’s early movies. it was Arjan Singh who was sent one time once more on Operation Forest Jharkhani. Learning from Intelligence that the above-named ululating and dancing twosome was the at large cadavers. Arjan Singh fell for a spot into a zombielike province and eventually acquired so irrational a apprehension of black-skinned people that whenever he saw a black individual in a ballbag. he swooned. stating “they’re killing me. ” and drank and passed a batch of H2O. Neither unvarying nor Bibles could alleviate that depression. At long last. under the shadow of apremuture and forced retirement. it was possible to show him at the desk of Mr. Senanayak. the aged Bengali specializer in combat and extreme-left political relations.
Senanayak knows the activities and capacities of the resistance better than they themselves do. First. hence. he presents an eulogy on the military mastermind of the Sikhs. Then he explains farther: Is it merely the resistance that should happen power at the terminal of the barrel of a gun? Arjan Singh’s power besides explodes out of the male organ of a gun. Without a gun even the “five Ks” semen to nil in this twenty-four hours and age. These addresss he delivers to all and assorted. As a consequence. the combat forces regain their assurance in the Army Handbook. It is non a book for everyone. It says that the most ugly and abhorrent manner of combat is 394 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi”
guerilla warfare with crude arms. Annihilation at sight of any and all practicians of such warfare is the sacred responsibility of every soldier. Dopdi and Dulna belong to the class of such combatants. for they excessively kill by agencies of tomahawk and scythe. bow and pointer. etc. In fact. their active power is greater than the gentlemen’s. Not all gentlemen become experts in the detonation of “chambers” ; they think the power will come out on its ain if the gun is held. But since Dulna and Dopdi are illiterate. their sort have practiced the usage of arms coevals after coevals.
I should advert here that. although the other side make small of him. Senanayak is non to be trifled with. Whatever hispractice. in theory he respects the resistance. Respects them because they could be neither understood nor dismantled if they were treated with the attitude. “It’s nil but a spot of irreverent game-playing with guns. ” In order to destruct the enemy. go one. Thus he understood them by ( theoretically ) going one of them. He hopes to compose on all this in the hereafter. He has besides decided that in his written work he will pulverize the gentlemen and highlight the message of the harvest workers. These mental procedures might look complicated. but really he is a simple adult male and is every bit pleased as his 3rd granduncle after a repast of turtle meat. In fact. he knows that. as in the old popular vocal. bend by turn the universe will alter.
And in every universe he must hold the certificates to last with award. If necessary he will demo the hereafter to what extent he entirely understands the affair in its proper position. He knows really good that what he is making today the hereafter will bury. but he besides knows that if he can alter colour from universe to universe. he can stand for the peculiar universe in inquiry. Today he is acquiring rid of the immature by agencies of “apprehension and riddance. ” but he knows people will shortly bury the memory and lesson of blood. And at the same clip. he. like Shakespeare. believes in presenting the world’s bequest into youth’s custodies. He is Prospero every bit good.
At any rate. information is received that many immature work forces and adult females. batch by batch and on landrovers. have attacked constabularies station after constabulary station. terrified and elated the part. and disappeared into the wood of Jharkhani. Since after get awaying from Bakuli. Dopdi and Dulna have worked at the house of virtually every landholder. they can expeditiously inform the slayers about their marks and announce proudly that they excessively are soldiers. rank and $ lupus erythematosus. Finally the impenetrable wood of Jharkhani is surrounded by existent soldiers. the ground forces enters and splits the battleground. Soldiers in concealing guard the falls and springs that are the lone beginning of imbibing H2O ; they are still guarding. still looking.
On one such hunt. ground forces informant Dukhiram Gharari saw a immature Santal adult male lying on his tummy on a level rock. dunking his face to imbibe H2O. The soldiers shot him as he lay. As the. 303 threw him off spread-eagled and brought a bloody froth to his oral cavity. he roared “Ma-ho” and so went hitchs. They realized subsequently that it was the formidable Dulna Majhi. What does “Ma-ho” mean? Is this a violent motto in the tribal linguistic communication? Even after much idea. the Department of Defense could non be certain.
Two tribal-specialist types are flown in from Calcutta. and they sweat over the lexicons put together by worthies such as Hoffmann-Jeffer and Golden-Palmer. Finally the omniscent Senanayak biddings Chamru. the H2O bearer of the cantonment. He giggles when he sees the two specializers. rub his ear with his “bidi. ” and says. The Santals of Maldah did state that when they began contending at the clip of King Gandhi! It’s a conflict call. Who said “Ma-ho” here? Did person semen from Maldah?
The job is therefore solved. Then. go forthing Dulna’s organic structure on the rock. the soldiers climb the trees in green disguise. They embrace the leafy boughs like so many great Gods Pans and wait as the big ruddy emmets bite their private parts. To see if anyone comes to take away the organic structure. This is the hunter’s manner. non the soldier’s. But Senanayak knows that these beasts can non be dispatched by the sanctioned method. So he asks his work forces to pull the quarry with a cadaver as come-on. All will come clear. he says. I have about deciphered Dopdi’s vocal.
The soldiers get traveling at his bid. But no 1 comes to claim Dulna’s cadaver. At dark the soldiers shoot at a hassle and. descending. discover that they have killed two porcupines mating on dry foliages. Improvidently plenty. the soldiers’ jungle lookout Dukhiram gets a knife in the cervix before he can claim the wages for Dulna’s gaining control. Bearing Dulna’s cadaver. the soldiers suffer hiting strivings as the emmets. interrupted in their banquet. get down to seize with teeth them. When Senanayak hears that no 1 has come to take the cadaver. he slaps his anti-Fascist paper-back book transcript of The Deputy and cries. “What? ” Immediately one of the tribal specializers runs in with a joy as bare and crystalline as Archimedes’ and says. “Get up. sir! I have discovered the significance of that ‘hende rambra’ material. It’s Mundari linguistic communication. ”
Therefore the hunt for Dopdi continues. In the forest belt of Jharkhani. the Operation continues-will continue. It is a carbuncle on the government’s rear. Not to be cured by the tried unction. non to split with the appropriate herb. In the first stage. the runawaies. ignorant of the forest’s topography. are caught easy. and by the jurisprudence of confrontation they are shot at the taxpayer’s disbursal. By the jurisprudence of confrontation. their orbs. bowels. tummies. Black Marias. genitalias. and so on go the nutrient of fox. vulture. hyaena. wildcat. emmet. and worm. and the Harijans go off merrily to sell their bare skeletons.
They do non let themselves to be captured in unfastened combat in the following stage. Now it seems that they have found a trusty messenger. Ten to one it’s Dopdi. Dopdi loved Dulna more than her blood. No uncertainty it is she who is salvaging the runawaies now.
“They” is besides a hypothesis.
396 Gayatri Chakravorty Spiuak “Draupadi”
How many went origznally?
The reply is silence. About that there are many narratives. many books in imperativeness. Best non to believe everything.
How many killed in six years’ confrontation?
The reply is silence.
Why after confrontations are the skeletons discovered with weaponries broken or severed? Could armless work forces have fought? Why do the clavicles shake. why are legs and ribs crushed?
Two sorts of reply. Silence. Hurt reproof in the eyes. Shame on you! Why bring this up? What will be will be. . . .
How many left in the wood? The reply is silence.
A legzon? Is itjustzjiable to keep a big battalion in that wild country at the taxpayer’s disbursal?
Answer: Expostulation. “Wild area” is wrong. The battalion is provided with supervised nutrition. agreements to idolize harmonizing to faith. chance to listen to “Bibidha Bharati” and to see Sanjeev Kumar and the Lord Krishna face-to-face in the film This Is Life. No. The country is non wild.
How many are left?
The reply is silence.
How many are left? Is at that place anyone at all?
The reply is long.
Item: Well. action still goes on. Usurers. landlords. grain agents. anon. whorehouse keepers. ex-informants are still terrified. The hungry and bare are still noncompliant and uncontrollable. In some pockets the harvest workers are acquiring a better pay. Villages sympathetic to the runawaies are still soundless and hostile. These events cause one to believe. . . . Where in this image does Dopdi Mejhen tantrum?
She must hold connexions with the runawaies. The cause for fright is elsewhere. The 1s who remain have lived a long clip in the crude universe of the forest. They keep company with the hapless crop workers and the tribals. They must hold forgotten book larning. Possibly they are pointing their book acquisition to the dirt they live on and larning new combat and endurance techniques. One can hit and acquire rid of the 1s whose lone resort is extrinsic book acquisition and sincere intrinsic enthusiasm. Those who are working practically will non be exterminated so easy.
Therefore Operation Jharkhani Forest can non halt. Reason: the words of warning in the Army Handbook.
Catch Dopdi Mejhen. She will take us to the others.
Dopdi was continuing easy. with some rice knotted into her belt. Critical Inquiry Winter 1981 397
Mushai Tudu’s married woman had cooked her some. She does so on occasion. When the rice is cold. Dopdi knots it into her girdle and walks easy. As she
walked. she picked out and killed the lice in her hair. If she had some Kerosene. she’d hang-up it into her scalp and acquire rid of the lice. Then she could rinse her hair with bakingsoda. But the assholes put traps at every crook of the falls. If they smell kerosene in the H2O. they will follow the aroma.
She doesn’t respond. She ne’er responds when she hears her ain name. She has seen in the Panchayat office merely today the notice for the wages in her name. Mushai Tudu’s married woman had said. “What are you looking at? Who is Dopdi Mejhen! Money if you give her up! ”
“How much? ”
Mushai’s married woman said outside the office: “A batch of readying this clip. A-1 1 new police officers. ”
Don’t semen once more.
Mushai’s married woman looked down. Tudu says that Sahib has come once more. If they catch you. the small town. our huts. . .
They’ll burn once more.
Yes. And about Dukhiram. . .
The Sahib knows?
Shomai and Budhna betrayed us.
Where are they?
Ran off by train.
Dopdi idea of something. Then said. Go place. I don’t know what will go on. if they catch me don’t cognize me.
Can’t you run off?
No. State me. how many times can I run off? What will they make if they catch me? They will counter me. Let them.
Mushai’s married woman said. We have nowhere else to travel.
Dopdi said quietly. I won’t state anyone’s name.
Dopdi knows. has learned by hearing so frequently and so long. how one can come to footings with anguish. If head and organic structure give manner under anguish. Dopdi will seize with teeth off her lingua. That male child did it. They countered him. When they counter you. your custodies are tied behind you. All your castanetss are crushed. your sex is a awful lesion. Killed by constabulary in an brush. . . unknown male. . . age 22. . .
As she walked believing these ideas. Dopdi heard person naming. Dopdi!
She didn’t respond. She doesn’t respond if called by her ain name. Here her name is Upi Mejhen. But who calls?
398 Gayatri Chakravo~S pivak “Draupadi” Spines of intuition are ever furled in her head. Hearing “Dopdi” they stiffen like a hedgehog’s. Walking. she unrolls the $ lumen of known faces in her head. Who? Not Shomra. Shomra is on the tally. Shomai and Budhna are besides on the tally. for other grounds. Not Golok. he is in Bakuli. Is it person from Bakuli? After Bakuli. her and Dulna’s names were Upi Mejhen. Matang Majhi. Here no 1 but Mushai and his married woman knows their existent names. Among the immature gentlemen. non all of the old batches knew.
That was a troubled clip. Dopdi is confused when she thinks about it. Operation Bakuli in Bakuli. Surja Sahu arranged with Biddibabu to delve two tubewells and three Wellss within the compound of his two houses. No H2O anyplace. drouth in Birbhum. Unlimited H2O at Surja Sahu’s house. every bit clear as a crow’s oculus.
Get your H2O with canal revenue enhancement. everything is firing.
What’s my net income in increasing cultivation with revenue enhancement money?
Everything’s on fire.
Get out of here. I don’t accept your Panchayat bunk. Increase cultivation with H2O. You want half the Paddy for sharecropping. Everyone is happy with free Paddy. Then give me paddy at place. give me money. I’ve learned my lesson seeking to make you good.
What good did you make?
Have I non given H2O to the small town?
You’ve given it to your kin Bhagunal.
Don’t you get H2O?
No. The Harijans don’t acquire H2O.
The wrangle began at that place. In the drouth. human forbearance gimmicks easy. Satish and Jugal from the small town and that immature gentleman. was Rana his name? . said a landowning usurer won’t give a thing. set him down.
Surja Sahu’s house was surrounded at dark. Surja Sahu had brought out his gun. Surja was tied up with cow rope. His milky orbs turned and turned. he was incontinent once more and once more. Dulna had said. I’ll have the first blow. brothers. My greatgrandfather took a spot of Paddy from him. and I still give him free labour to refund that debt. Dopdi had said. His oral cavity watered when he looked at me. I’ll pull out his eyes.
Surja Sahu. Then a telegraphic message from Shiuri. Particular train. Army. The landrover didn’t come up to Bakuli. March-march-march. The crunch-crunch-crunch of crushed rock under hobnailed boots. Cordon up. Commands on the microphone. Jugal Mandal ; Satish Mandal. Rana alias Prabir assumed name Dipak. Dulna Majhi-Dopdi Mejhen resignation resignation resignation. No resignation resignation. Mow-mowmow down the small town. Putt-putt putt-puttcordite in the air-putt-putt-round the clock-putt-putt. Flame throwster. Bakuli is firing. More work forces and adult females. kids. . . jre-jire. Close canal Critical Inquiry Winter 1981 399 attack.
Over-over-over by twilight. Dopdi and Dulna had crawled on their tummies to safety. They could non hold reached Paltakuri after Bakuli. Bhupati and Tapa took them. Then it was decided that Dopdi and Dulna would work around the Jharkhani belt. Dulna had explained to Dopdi. Dear. this is best! We won’t acquire household and kids this manner. But who knows? Landowner and usurer and police officers might one twenty-four hours be wiped out!
Who called her from the dorsum today?
Dopdi kept walking. Villages and Fieldss. shrub and rock-Public Works Department markers-sound of running stairss in back. Merely one individual running. Jharkhani Forest still about two stat mis off. Now she thinks of nil but come ining the wood. She must allow them cognize that the constabularies have set up notices for her once more. Must state them that that asshole Sahib has appeared once more. Must alteration hideawaies.
Besides. the program to make to Lakkhi Bera and Naran Bera what they did to Surja Sahu on history of the problem over paying the field hands in Sandara must be cancelled. Shomai and Budhna knew everything. There was the urgency of great danger under Dopdi’s ribs. Now she thought there was no shame as a Santal in Shomai and Budhna’s perfidy. Dopdi’s blood was the pure unadulterated black blood of Champabhumi. From Champa to Bakuli the rise and set of a million Moons. Their blood could hold been contaminated ; Dopdi felt proud of her sires. They stood guard over
their women’s blood in black armour. Shomai and Budhna are halfbreeds. The fruits of the war. Contributions to Radhabhumi by the American soldiers stationed at Shiandanga. Otherwise. crow would eat crow’s flesh before Santal would bewray Santal. Footfalls at her dorsum. The stairss maintain a distance. Rice in her belt. baccy leaves tucked at her waist. Arijit. Malini. Shamu. Mantu-none of them fumes or even drinks tea. Tobacco leaves and limestone pulverization. Best medical specialty for Scorpio bite. Nothing must be given away. Dopdi turned left. This manner is the cantonment. Two stat mis. This is non the manner to the wood. But Dopdi will non come in the wood with a bull at her dorsum.
I swear by my life. By my life Dulna. by my life. Nothing must be told.
The footsteps bend left. Dopdi touches her waist. In her thenar the comfort of a lunula. A babe scythe. The Smiths at Jharkhani are all right craftsmans. Such an border we’ll put on it Upi. a 100 Dukhiram* Thank God Dopdi is non a gentleman. Actually. possibly they have understood scythe. tomahawk. and knife best. They do their work in silence. The visible radiations of the cantonment at a distance. Why is Dopdi traveling this manner? Stop a spot. it turns once more. Huh! I can state where I am if I wander all dark with my eyes shut. I won’t travel in the wood. I won’t lose him that manner. I won’t outrun him. You sleep togethering Canis aureus of a bull. lifelessly afraid of decease. 400 Gayatri Ch a K r a u O ~Sp iuak “Draupadi”
you can’t run about in the wood. I’d run you out of breath. throw you in a ditch. and complete you off.
Not a word must be said. Dopdi has seen the new cantonment. she has sat in the coach station. passed the clip of twenty-four hours. smoked a “bidi” and found out how many constabulary convoys had arrived. how many wireless new waves. Squash four. onions seven. Piper nigrums fifty. a straightforward history. This information can non now be passed on. They will understand Dopdi Mejhen has been countered. Then they’ll tally. Arijit’s voice. If anyone is caught. the others must catch the timing and alter their hideaway. If Comrade Dopdi arrives tardily. we will non stay. There will be a mark of where we’ve gone. No companion will allow the others be destroyed for her ain interest.
Arijit’s voice. The gurgle of H2O. The way of the following hideaway will be indicated by the tip of the wooden arrowhead under the rock. Dopdi likes and understands this. Dulna died. but. allow me state you. he didn’t lose anyone else’s life. Because this was non in our caputs to get down with. one was countered for the other’s problem. Now a much harsher regulation. easy and clear. Dopdi returns-good ; doesn’t return–bad. Change hideaway. The hint will be such that the resistance won’t see it. won’t understand even if they do.
Footfalls at her dorsum. Dopdi turns once more. These 3 % stat mis of land and bouldery land are the best manner to come in the wood. Dopdi has left that manner behind. A small degree land in front. Then rocks once more. The anny could non hold struck cantonment on such bouldery terrain. This country is quiet plenty. It’s like a labyrinth. every bulge looks like every other. That’s all right. Dopdi will take the bull to the combustion “ghat. ” Patitpaban of Saranda had been sacrificed in the name of Kali of the Burning Ghats.
A ball of stone stands up. Another. Yet another. The aged Senanayak was at one time exultant and despondent. Ifyou want to destruct the enemy. go one. He had done so. Equally long as six old ages ago he could expect their every move. He still can. Therefore he is elated. Since he has kept up with the literature. he has read First Blood and seen blessing of his idea and work.
Dopdi couldn’t fast one him. he is unhappy about that. Two kinds of grounds. Six old ages ago he published an article about information storage in encephalon cells. He demonstrated in that piece that he supported this battle from the point of position of the field hands. Dopdi is a field manus. Veteran3ghter. Search and destroy. Dopdi Mejhefi is about to be apprehended. Will be destroyed. Regret.
Dopdi stops abruptly. The stairss behind come around to the forepart. Under Dopdi’s ribs the canal dike interruptions. No hope. Surja Sahu’s brother Rotoni Sahu. The two balls of stone come frontward. Shomai and
Budhna. They had non escaped by train.
Arijit’s voice. Merely as you must cognize when you’ve won. you must besides admit licking and get down the activities of the following phase. Now Dopdi spreads her weaponries. raises her face to the sky. turns toward the wood. and ululates with the force of her full being. Once. twice. three times. At the 3rd explosion the birds in the trees at the outskirts of the forest awake and roll their wings. The reverberation of the call travels far. Draupadi Mejhen was apprehended at 6:53P. M. It took an hr to acquire her to bivouac. Questioning took another hr precisely. No 1 touched her. and she was allowed to sit on a canvas cantonment stool. At 8:57 Senanayak’s dinner hr approached. and stating. “Make her. Make the needful. ” he disappeared.
Then a billion Moons base on balls. A billion lunar old ages. Opening her eyes after a million light old ages. Draupadi. queerly adequate. sees sky and Moon. Slowly the bloodied nailheads displacement from her encephalon. Trying to travel. she feels her weaponries and legs still tied to four stations. Something gluey under her buttocks and waist. Her ain blood. Merely the joke has been removed. Incredible thirst. In instance she says “water” she catches her lower lip in her dentition. She senses that her vagina is shed blooding. How many came to do her?
Dishonoring her. a tear trickles out of the corner of her oculus. In the muddy moonlight she lowers her lightless oculus. sees her chests. and understands that. so. she’s been made up right. Her chests are bitten natural. the mammillas torn. How many? Four-five-six-seven-then Draupadi had passed out.
She turns her eyes and sees something white. Her ain fabric. Nothing else.
Suddenly she hopes against hope. Possibly they have abandoned her. For the foxes to devour. But she hears the scraping of pess. She turns her caput. the guard leans on his bayonet and sneers at her. Draupadi closes her eyes. She doesn’t have to wait long. Again the procedure of doing her Begins. Goes on. The Moon vomits a spot of visible radiation and goes to kip. Merely the dark remains. A compelled spread-eagled still organic structure. Active Pistons of flesh rise and autumn. rise and autumn over it. Then forenoon comes.
Then Draupadi Mejhen is brought to the collapsible shelter and thrown on the straw. Her piece of fabric is thrown over her organic structure.
Then. after breakfast. after reading the newspaper and directing the wireless message “Draupadi Mejhen apprehended. ” etc. . Draupadi Mejhen is ordered brought in.
Suddenly there is problem.
Draupadi sits up every bit shortly as she hears “Move! ” and asks. Where do you desire me to travel?
To the Burra Sahib’s collapsible shelter.
402 Gayatm’ Chakravorty Spivak “Draupadi”
Where is the collapsible shelter?
Over at that place.
Draupadi fixes her ruddy eyes on the collapsible shelter. Says. Come. I’ll go. The guard pushes the H2O pot frontward.
Draupadi stands up. She pours the H2O down on the land.
Tears her piece of fabric with her dentitions. Sing such unusual behaviour. the guard says. She’s gone brainsick. and runs for orders. He can take the captive out but doesn’t cognize what to make if the captive behaves incomprehensibly. So he goes to inquire his higher-up.
The disturbance is as if the dismay had sounded in a prison.
Senanayak walks out surprised and sees Draupadi. naked. walking toward him in the bright sunshine with her caput high. The nervous guards trail behind.
What is this? He is about to shout. but stops.
Draupadi stands before him. naked. Thigh and pubic hair matted with dry blood. Two chests. two lesions.
What is this? He is about to bark.
Draupadi comes nearer. Stands with her manus on her hip. laughs and say