Digestive Case Studies

symptoms of Crohn’s disease:
abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, malnutrition

What part of the digestive tract does Crohn’s disease affect?
causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract

impact Crohn’s disease has on lifestyle:
enhances symptoms of lactose intolerance

complications of Crohn’s disease:
anal cancer, colon cancer, small bowel obstruction, nutritional deficiencies, intestinal ulcers, fistulas

predisposing factors the development of Crohn’s disease:
age, ethnicity, family history, and smoking history

symptoms of peptic ulcer
occasional abdominal pain

what part of the digestive tract does a peptic ulcer affect?
acid eats away at the inner surface of the esophagus, stomach, or small intestine

bacteria associated with peptic ulcers?
H. Pylori

how does the peptic ulcer bacteria survive in the digestive tract?
-secretes urease that produces ammonia and neutralizes the acidity
-possess flagella, allowing the bacteria to swim towards less acidic environments

procedure used to diagnose peptic ulcers?
endoscopy examines the digestive tract

treatment for peptic ulcers?
lifestyle changes, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and antibiotics

possible complications of peptic ulcers:
internal bleeding, infection, scar tissue

symptoms of liver disease:
severe vomiting of bright red blood, fatigue, dull pain in RUQ of the abdomen

esophageal varices:
enlarged veins in the lower part of the esophagus

portal hypertension:
high blood pressure with the portal venous system

portal venous system:
veins that come from the stomach, intestine, pancreas, and spleen to merge into the hepatic portal vein

scarring of the tissue within the liver; can cause portal hypertension and esophageal varices

too much bilirubin in the blood; skin has a yellow pigment

predisposing factors for the development of liver disease
use of alcohol, diabetes,obesity, high levels of cholesterol and blood pressure, etc

possible treatments for liver disease
operation for portal hypertension, liver transplant, medications to regulate hormones

(depends on the level of the disease and cause of it)

signs and symptoms of GERD
burning chest pain that increases after meals, regurgitation, sour taste in mouth

what part of the digestive tract does GERD affect?
lower esophageal sphincter allows gastric acids to reflux into the esophagus, causing heartburn, indigestion, and possible injury to the esophageal lining

Treatments for GERD?
antacids, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitor

lifestyle changes that minimize symptoms of GERD?
decreasing sizes of meals, no smoking, losing weight if needed, avoiding foods/beverages that can weaken the lower esophageal sphincter such as peppermint and coffee

difference between GERD and acid reflux
both occur because the hiatus that attaches the esophagus to the stomach is allowing the stomach to bulge up into the chest cavity through that opening of the hiatus.

acid reflux is when it only happens on occasion. GERD is when it occurs on more than two occasions in one week.

symptoms of diverticulitis
bright red blood in stool, fever and pain in LLQ, constipation, bloating

What part of the digestive tract does diverticulitis affect?
the sigmoid colon by creating pouches in the lining of the colon

Diverticula vs. Diverticulitis
diverticula is when pouches develop in the lining of an organ. diverticulitis is when these pouches become infected or inflamed.

what procedures are used to diagnose diverticulitis?
blood and urine tests, pelvic examination, abdominal and pelvic CT scan

constipation with diverticulitis
constipation makes the muscles strain to move stool that is too hard and this increases pressure in the colon which causes the weak spots of the colon to become diverticula.

lifestyle changes for diverticulitis
exercise, drinking water, and eating healthy (greens and fiber)