Development Of Psychological Thoughts In The Philippines Sociology Essay Example
Development Of Psychological Thoughts In The Philippines Sociology Essay Example

Development Of Psychological Thoughts In The Philippines Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 16 (4395 words)
  • Published: August 17, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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During the 1980s, Filipinos believed that scientific psychology originated in the West during Philippine colonial instruction. In order to challenge this belief, Murray Bartlett, an American, established undergraduate psychology classes at the College of Education, University of the Philippines. These classes utilized American textbooks and were conducted in English as the medium of instruction. It is worth noting that literary writing was done in Filipino.

During this time, Francis Burton Harrison implemented the policy of attractive force. Despite being propagandists and not psychologists, the works of del Pilar, Jacinto, and Pardo de Tavera were significant sources of psychological theories. In fact, even Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo referenced the term "Psicologos del verbo Tagalog" in his speech.

Although they did not hold titles in Psychology, their innate characteristics remained unchanged. The English language and the American education system were utilized as tools. In the mid-twe


ntieth century, Filipino psychologists replaced American instructors. Some Filipinos questioned the uncritical adoption of American psychological models. Sinsiforo Padilla made the initial attempt to challenge these models when he succeeded Alonzo as president of the University of the Philippines.

His co-worker, Manuel Carreon, advocated for appropriate psychological testing. In 1926, Carreon published his Ph.D. entitled "Filipino Studies in Mental Measurement" in New York. Although the statements presented were valid, Carreon made a mistake by publishing it in English.

Cipher paid attention to him because during that video, the majority of psychologists were present and they conducted American experiments. Some of Carreon's message, which was understood, was adapted to fit the Philippine situation. Isidoro Panlasigui recognized the emerging field of Psychology. Panlasigui, along with other American-influenced Filipino psychologists of his time, admired America. This admiration was eviden

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in his writings about the psychology of Filipinos and his support for the use of the colonial language. Alfredo V.

Lagmay and his co-workers were sent to the United States non to neutralize the section. Lagmay studied Psychology in Harvard where he was trained in the country of Experimental Psychology. He came back to the Philippines during the hapless unrest under Hukbalahap with Luis Taruc, as the caput. During that clip, the Department of Psychology in the University of the Philippines was portion of the College of Education. It was so Lagmay 's first move to reassign it to the College of Liberal Arts by altering the educational point of position to a more scientific footing of orientation.

Experimental Psychology is now an integral part of the undergraduate curriculum in Philippine schools thanks to Francisco Benitez. The U.P Department of Psychology had a behavioral orientation from the 50's to the early 70's, and his students conducted noteworthy studies in the field.

The History and Lines of Filiations in Philippine Psychological Thought


This aspect of psychology was incorporated into university curriculum by Francisco Benitez in 1922. It was first taught at the University of the Philippines as part of the education curriculum.

During this period, various studies in psychology, such as Experimental Psychology, Educational Psychology, and Psychology of Advice Giving, were introduced. Western Psychology initially entered the UP system but later became widely spread in UST (University of Sto. Tomas) and University of San Carlos in Cebu. In 1954, Joseph Goertz established the Department of Psychology, with English being used as the medium of learning.

On the other hand, amidst its growth in Manila, this subject was also introduced as

a class in the University of St. Louis in Cordillera, facilitated by Fr. Evarist Louis, a missionary priest.

Psychology-Academic Doctrine

However, the first establishment of Psychology-Academic Doctrine was at the University of Sto.

The study of Psychology was first introduced and developed by Spaniards, particularly the Jesuits. This aspect of Psychology predates the one mentioned earlier. It originated and was established in various universities such as UST (University of Sto. Tomas) and other Spanish institutions like San Ignacio and San Jose. These establishments offered courses on medicine and philosophy, and the ideas and written documents during that time were found to be connected to the field of Psychology.

When delving deeper into an analysis, one can include the way of life in the past. This includes language, how the "indio" perceive self-concept, their criticisms, and the activities of ancient civilization. Cultural Psychology is the third aspect of Psychology, which originated from the Filipinos and was influenced by other countries.

It is not only older but also much more complex compared to the previous aspects. It encompasses many different elements, one of which is the psychology that originated from Filipinos themselves. This indigenous psychology has been influenced by other countries. The language plays a significant role, especially in activities that demonstrate the collective experiences of Filipinos. The works of Jose Rizal and Isabelo de los Reyes focused on Filipino Psychology and its connection to the Psycho-Medical Psychology of our ancestors.

Social Psychology is the scientific study of the nature and causes of human social behavior.

Primarily, the focus is on human societal behavior,

encompassing various matters related to the impact individuals have on others, social interactions, and interpersonal relationships within society. The inquiry not only explores the nature of societal behavior but also investigates its underlying causes. The study aims to unravel the reasons and prerequisites behind social behavior.

The text provides an overview of a comprehensive analysis of social behavior, which includes methods, findings, experiments, and studies. The survey focuses on four main concerns to understand its purpose. Essentially, it explores how individuals affect others and how groups influence their members and vice versa. Additionally, it investigates the impact of one group on another within the defined framework.

Psychologists study the behavior, thoughts, and emotions of individuals in society in order to understand why and how people behave, think, and feel. They analyze actions, thoughts, and feelings. Therefore, psychology is the scientific investigation of how an individual's behavior, thoughts, and emotions can be impacted by real or perceived influences as well as the presence of others. This field explores behavior and mental processes within the social realm where we are interconnected with others and subject to different forms of influence.

The interview I conducted with Ms. Leslee Natividad from the Department of Social Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Bai?”os explained the definition of Social Psychology in the Filipino context. According to her, Social Psychology focuses on influence and is the study of how individuals affect society and how society influences individuals. She stated that to understand Filipino behavior, we need to consider how Filipinos are impacted by society both in the Philippines and possibly in the world as a whole.

Everything that we as individuals experience in the

universe and Filipino society has an impact on Filipino singles. Our daily lives are shaped by what we see, hear, and the constant influences around us. This is all part of Filipino Social Psychology, where our behavior is influenced by our experiences.

Main Areas of Social Psychology:

  • Social Influence: It refers to how others can affect our behavior. It involves a process in which the presence of other people can directly or indirectly influence an individual.

The focus of this discussion is the impact of others' ideas and actions on our behavior, specifically how our upbringing and social interactions can shape it in various ways. These include Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience. Conformity refers to adjusting our behavior to align with others. Many studies have demonstrated that individuals may alter their behavior to fit in with a group due to personal beliefs or societal pressures.

Social Cognition investigates the influence of face-to-face interaction and gender on conformity and obedience. Conformity refers to modifying behavior due to others' requests, without any authority or power involved, whereas obedience involves changing behavior in response to direct orders from an authority figure. Attitudes impact individuals' emotions, thoughts, and actions towards others.

Impression formation is the process of creating initial knowledge or judgement about a person upon first sight. Attribution is how we explain our own behavior or that of others, using mental processes to make sense of the social world. What was once considered the objective world is now understood as a subjective interpretation, influenced by individual cultural, scientific, religious, and personality factors. Each person sees meaning in this interpretation that may only be loosely related to the actual characteristics of the world.

In this aspect

of judging beauty, our thoughts play a crucial role. There is no universal definition of beauty for people or objects. What we perceive as beautiful is heavily influenced by our own biases, opinions, and emotions, rather than solely based on physical existence. These perceptions are dynamic processes where we actively choose, shape, and interpret various pieces of information to construct our own reality.

Social Interaction is the study of recognizing both positive and negative behavior. This field, called Social Psychology, explores interactions and relationships between individuals. It includes prejudice, where someone holds an unsupported negative attitude towards others in society. It also involves discrimination, which is treating individuals differently based on prejudice.

Wishing and loving, aggression were also cultivated in this place. The phenomenon of liking and loving in our society, referred to as interpersonal attraction, is commonly observed. Every individual in our society is attracted to certain personalities. This attraction can be influenced and demonstrated through factors such as similarities, social status, physical appearance, and acquaintance between both genders.

The concept of aggression involves causing harm to others. It has been described as "any form of behavior aimed at harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such interference" (Baron and Richardson, 1993). Psychologists have identified three types of aggression. First, there is Person-oriented aggression, where the primary objective is to intentionally harm someone. Second, there is Proactive aggression, which occurs when aggressive behavior is used to achieve a desired outcome, such as acquiring ownership of an object.

Last, Reactive aggression is a response to aggression. A prime example of positive behavior is Altruism. This is a helpful behavior that is valuable to a selfless

person. It involves a willingness to help without expecting anything in return. Empathy is crucial in this process as it allows individuals to share emotions and comprehend others.

The Filipino Psychology aims to develop native psychological concepts. Cultural constructs and theories can be translated, but there may be differences in meaning due to location. Some constructs that Filipinos displayed were analyzed by foreign researchers. One such construct is Shame or "Hiya," which was studied by Frank Lynch in 1961. Sibley also analyzed this behavior in 1965.

During 1981, Salazar conducted an extensive study on the societal feeling in the Philippines, which he described as both active and passive. He identified its external aspects as "hiyain, ikahiya at manghiya" (shame, embarrassment, and shyness), as well as its internal aspects involving emotions and feelings like "kahiya hiya and mahiyain" (feeling shameful and being shy). Another concept studied was Fatalism or "Bahala Na". It is worth mentioning that Bostrom was the first psychologist to speculate about this Filipino behavior in 1968.

He compared it with American Fatalism but in Filipino Psychology it has a different orientation. Before, Osias explained manner back the 1940 's that "bahala na" attitude is the combination of fatalism and determinism. On the other hand, Lagmay corrected it and said that for him it is not about fatalism it is more of finding and bravery to confront unsecured times. Last, is the concept of "Utang na Loob" which was translated by Charles Kaut into English known as debt of gratitude. Enriquez disagreed and Holnsteiner gave his opinion that 'utang na loob' is contractual.

The third task is to create a reliable and appropriate social scientific psychology. When constructing

a real version of social psychology, it is necessary to consider societal behavior. The smooth functioning of Filipino society revolves around the principles of "Pakikisama and Pakikipagkapwa''. Upon examining both concepts, it has been found that "pakikipagkapwa'' holds greater importance for Filipinos as it carries a deeper meaning and implication.

It means treating others as equals. In English, the context was altered to include the concept of the individualistic understanding of the self and others.

Man and his Ideas

The second concept is the foundation of valuing individuals and their ideas. It is the meeting point of Filipino Psychology and Psychology in the Philippines.

Filipino psychological science has always been a part of global psychology and has been greatly influenced by rational psychology that originated and evolved at the University of Sto. Tomas. It is considered a traditional philosophy based on the ideas of Descartes and the written works of Aristotle.

Psychology is a component of Filipino Psychology, which is taught as an academic subject in certain universities in the Philippines.

Time period of changing mindset

It was the third stage as it relates to the Filipino identity. Many foundations were observed during this period, particularly evident in the written works of Filipino authors such as Pedro Serrano Laktaw and Isabelo delos Reyes. Even prior to the emergence of the psychology of language in written outputs by Filipinos.

The text highlights the shallow mindset of Filipinos when it comes to exploring and conducting studies. Instead of suppressing their spirits, Filipinos should strive for improvement. The fourth basis is the time period when importance was given to social issues, serving as evidence of societal values. Hartendorp,

an American psychologist, became interested in Philippine psychology. In 1940, Osias theorized about the relationship between language and society and the knowledge of paralinguistic communication in individuals' actions. This period also saw the emergence of Filipino psychologists.

Filipino Psychology encompasses the works of Isidoro Panlasigui, Sinsiforo Padilla, and Alfredo Lagmay, all of whom emphasized the actions and capabilities of individuals.

Social problems

The recognition of social problems as the fifth foundation in Filipino Psychology signifies its importance in driving progress and development. Aldaba-Lim particularly values addressing social problems and urges fellow Filipino psychologists to pay attention to societal issues. Any doubts about his commitment would be dispelled by studying his efforts and contributions to psychology research.

The period of Activism served as an informant of this footing. Language, civilization and Point of position were the 6th bases because they are the most cardinal of all bases. Filipino linguistic communication and idiom are highly important because they are informants in the many studies conducted and translated into foreign linguistic communication. The field must still utilize mediums, systems, and ways to guarantee the broad range of study. Regarding civilization, there are none or very few Filipinos who still doubt the language and culture of the Philippines. According to some professors and psychologists, there was this "acquiescence effect" that can be seen in a scale used and answered by Filipinos.

The analysis was based on the American perspective, but it should primarily be viewed from a Filipino perspective.

The Concept of Language

Considering local language as a foundation for Filipinos is beneficial as it provides a strong connection to their culture. Language serves not only

as an effective means of communication but also as a valuable source of information.

The text emphasizes the importance of understanding Filipino culture. It suggests that it is beneficial to explain a specific Filipino concept from a broader perspective. Language plays a vital role in studying the social psychology of Filipinos, with most of them speaking both Filipino and English. It is worth noting that the Philippines is the third largest English-speaking country globally, following the United States and the United Kingdom.

The literacy rate is a high 96%. There are approximately 111 languages and dialects spoken in the state, with most Manilenos speaking at least one other language besides Filipino.

The Concept of Human Interaction

The concept of Human Interaction includes the differentiation between (Pakikisama or Pakikipagkapwa?). It is an essential part of Filipino culture. While there are positive aspects to interaction, previous research on Philippine values identified three negative characteristics in interpersonal relations: "walang pakisama" (someone who lacks accommodation), "walang hiya" (someone who lacks propriety), and "walang utang na loob" (someone who lacks gratitude). Further analysis suggests that pakikipagkapwa is more important for Filipinos.

According to Enriquez, despite Western psychology's presence in the Philippines, the use of Filipino has identified the significance of the value "pakikipagkapwa," which is more important than "pakikisama." The barkada (peer group) would not approve of someone who lacks "pakikisama," but the Filipino society as a whole cannot accept someone who lacks "kapwa Taoist". "Pakikipagkapwa" encompasses all the other mentioned styles and levels of interaction. "Pakikisama" is a form of "pakikipagkapwa," but not vice versa.

In fact, "pakikisalamuha" is even closer than "pakikisama" in significance to "pakikipagkapwa."

Application of Filipino Social Psychology

Filipino Culture


Social, Political, Ideational dimensions are diverse into facets which were exhibited by Filipinos. The survey of the imposts and beliefs of Filipinos serves as a map of societal and economic dimension of Filipino civilization. The Filipino civilization is such very rich. It was very apparent in the following ways. In wooing and matrimony most of the Filipinos respect this as a procedure of love as a parental matter.

The significance of matrimony among Filipinos is determined by the number of children they have. They also hold beliefs in "Babaylans and Catalonan," individuals with supernatural powers to communicate with God. The practice of appealing to higher powers and gaining magical powers, such as anting-anting, lucky cards, rocks, and other objects during rituals on Good Friday, is widely believed. Celebrating feasts during important occasions like Fiestas, Holy Week, New Year, Christmas, and others is an integral part of their social life. These celebrations contribute greatly to the economic security and social unity of Filipinos. Additionally, they are known for their superstitious beliefs which are closely tied to their rituals and ceremonies.

Regarding supernatural entities, Filipinos adhere to these beliefs in order to prevent misfortune. This is evident in situations such as birth, illness, and death, which greatly influence the mindset of Filipinos. With the introduction of Christianity by the Spaniards, faith became a significant driving force in the lives of Filipinos. They are also particularly considerate when someone is sick and in need, as they fear judgement from others. Certain cultural practices include giving a dowry, carrying firearms, selecting a godparent and carrying a bow and arrows, sibat and creese.

During the clip of our cultural groups, 'Torahs were also

made with respects to belongings ownership and settling statements.

Filipino Values "Filipinos use values to fulfill the demand for democracy. The Filipinos are known to be hospitable. But aside from this trait, there are many other values that the Filipinos possess which help them live harmoniously with their neighbors. These have also made the Filipinos appealing towards others due to their pleasant demeanor. The following are some of the Filipino values such as "Bayanihan" is the creation of an association with neighbors and assisting whenever one is in dire need."

"Close Family Ties" is a characteristic that the Filipinos are popular for, as they are known to live near their family for the majority of their lives, even when they become independent adults. The primary support system for Filipinos is their family. In order to maintain a harmonious relationship, Filipinos practice "Pakikisama," which involves getting along with others. "Hiya," which is shame, serves as a motivating factor in their behavior.

It is a belief in adhering to societal norms and behavior. Filipinos feel the need to meet established standards of conduct, and failing to do so brings shame not only upon themselves but also their families. This is known as "Utang na Loob" or Debt of Gratitude, which is owed to those who have provided significant assistance. There is a local saying: "Ang Hindi marunong lumingon SA pinanggalinangan ay Hindi makakarating sa paroroonan', meaning 'One who does not look back to where they started will not reach their destination.' "Amor Propio" refers to concern for one's own image.

Filipinos emphasize the importance of presenting oneself in a manner that is accepted by society. They value "delicadeza" or a sense

of propriety which includes being sensitive to the boundaries of appropriate behavior and ethics. Filipinos make an effort to refrain from any appearance of impropriety. The concept of "Palabra de Honor" or word of honor holds great significance for Filipinos. They believe that it is essential to uphold one's promises, as those who have received a promise rely on it.

Filipino Family The survey of the Filipino Family is important because they value household relationship. In a traditional Filipino household, the male parent is considered the head and the provider of the household while the female parent takes responsibility for the domestic needs and is in charge of the emotional growth and values formation of the children. Children see their mothers as soft and calm, while they regard their fathers as strong and the most authoritative figure in the family. In an article written by Carlos P. Romulo entitled "What Filipinos have Done and are Making to the Family," the family will remain and prevail despite world cynicism and anxiety. The tradition must be preserved even in these modern times.

He pointed out that this is one of the many serious challenges our society must confront today, and that people must also focus on improving and showing concern for our family life. He emphasized that family life deserves the same level of attention as other sciences. According to the study on Phenomenology of the Filipino Family, in Philippine society, the family holds significant influence, particularly in terms of socio-economic security. This influence leads to an individualistic attitude towards one's family, which is evident in uncertainty, lack of commitment, or lack of social awareness.

The Future of Filipino


The future of Filipino culture remains uncertain.

Despite the alterations imposed by colonizers, the Filipino civilization remains resilient. Is there a distinct Filipino Psychology? The Filipino nation is rich in differences and intertwined observations, beliefs, and traditions from native groups. Creating a reliable thesis on Filipino Psychology requires extensive analytical research. Any scholar who attempts this must consider both individual and societal traits. Specifically, the indigenous people, who are predominantly native but have been influenced and altered by foreign cultures.

It is not yet completed because it is necessary to distinguish the beginning and influence.

Marginalization of Filipino Identity

The concealment and derogation of Filipino identity and values was ironically introduced by acknowledging Gov. Claveria, who was the individual responsible for imposing the assignment of family names to Filipinos. In this way, the true identity of Filipinos was hidden within their own names. Felipe de Leon analyzed how Filipino names represent the people and how they can conceal Filipino identity. The depreciation of Filipino identity continues and is reinforced in schools and by media.

Remember the story of Juan Tamad, the creation of Filipino folklore, who symbolizes laziness, crab mentality, and the inherent criminal tendencies and deformities of Filipino settlers, groups of friends, dumb nannies, housemaids, and drivers. The Americans believed that Filipinos were morally inferior and needed to be educated in an American way because of their laziness. This demeaned the Filipino mindset. In addressing this issue, several questions arise. Who colonized whom? Which culture caused damage? When we mention colonized Filipinos, who are we referring to? Certainly not Lapu Lapu or M.

Dulag, Dagohoy or any other hero; people who sought to belittle

the Filipino spirit can rest assured that the notion of us having a broken civilization is a myth. Alegre (1993) argued that civilization is intrinsic and can be found everywhere we go - it is our entire language with no signs of illness. He noted that Filipinos were not even bilingual in English.

Statistics have revealed that the average Filipino is fluent in their mother tongue as well as other Philippine languages. The marginalization of Filipino Literature was a result of the misconception that Filipinos did not possess a body of literature, which is false. Filipinos would truly benefit if they could escape the derogatory statement that Filipinos lack an indigenous body of literature. The truth is, Filipinos do have it. They have also produced written literature and maintained unwritten oral traditions. Filipinos also appreciate unpublished works, which are equally real and valid.

A sense of psychological tradition apart from a published psychological literature.

The marginalization of Filipino Theatre and Film.

Refusal to recognize the Philippines as the world's second-largest movie producer results in the marginalization of Filipino Theatre and Film. The significant impact of Filipino film on Philippine society and culture is greatly underestimated. This is due to the colonial mentality of the elite who refuse to acknowledge the Philippines' status as a major player in the global film industry.

The text discusses the ability of Tagalog films to withstand competition from popular Hollywood movies. It also mentions the astonishment of viewers at the box office success of "Rambo" starring Fernando Poe Jr. The text suggests that through the study of Filipino Social Psychology, we can understand the mystery of our identity. It

states that Filipinos have a rich culture and tradition, and despite attempts to erase our identity during colonization, we still possess our own knowledge and system. The text concludes by noting that concepts such as "Language," "Kapwa," and "Human Interaction" can be utilized to improve human relationships.

The Application of Filipino Social Psychology represents an introspection into the current state and progress of Filipinos. This can be observed in our social, ideal, and cultural aspects, which have continuously evolved from our past to the present era. Despite the marginalization of Filipino identity, as long as we have this study to guide us, it will always shed light on the Filipino way of life, connecting our history to our present and future. Furthermore, this study can serve as a tool for fostering development, recognizing that development is not solely focused on progress but also on the well-being and aspirations of the Filipino people.

Through this survey, we will become aware of the nature and causes of our attitude and behavior. The problems our country is currently facing can be solved in various ways, but it requires a shift in human behavior. Thus, we must instill positive Filipino traits and values and possibly replace the negative ones. In the end, it is not only us who will carry on the legacy of Filipino Social Psychology, but also our children of tomorrow. Changes may occur, but they will always serve as a reminder of who, what, when, and where we are today as Filipinos.

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