Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Flashcard maker : Amari Finch

Since its debut in 1983, the construct of Organizational Citizenship Behavior ( OCB ) has received a great trade of research attending. With the widespread belief that organisational citizenship behaviours are critical to heighten organisational effectivity ( Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1997 ) , understanding the nature and determiners of OCB has been for long of huge involvement to the organisational bookmans.

The classical definition of OCB by Organ ( 1988 ) refers to “individual behaviour that is discretional, non straight recognized by the formal wages system and that in sum promotes the effectual operation of the organization” ( Organ, 1988, p4 ) . Every organisation operates daily on legion Acts of the Apostless such as helpfulness, altruism, and other cases that can be considered as citizenship behaviour ( Todd and Kent, 2006 ) . The turning accent on squad work and advisory activities has led to the increased demand for single enterprise and cooperation devising OCB jussive mood for the endurance of the organisations ( LePine et al, 2002 ) . Previous empirical research findings support Organ’s place sing the function of OCB in maximizing employee every bit good as organisational public presentation ( for e.g. Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1994 ; Walz and Niehoff, 1996 ) . Sing the significance of OCB, the following indispensable inquiry that emerges is, what can the organisations do in order to increase these citizenship behaviours?

A overplus of research has been conducted to analyze the determiners of OCB. Previous research has chiefly focused on four classs of ancestors viz. : single features ( e.g. personality, affect etc ) , undertaking features ( undertaking routinization, undertaking feedback etc ) , organisational features ( staff support, organisational inflexibleness etc ) and leader behaviours ( e.g. transformational leading, transactional leading etc ) ( Podsakoff et al, 2000 ) . Although old research has identified assorted ancestors of OCB, the relationship between certain variables and OCB have remained inconsistent across surveies. Furthermore most empirical researches on OCB have been conducted in the United States, utilizing US employees as samples ( Farh et al, 2004 ) . The surveies conducted in a non western context have been limited. Podsakoff et Al ( 2000 ) opined the demand for future research to analyze the possible impact that cultural context might hold on citizenship behaviours. Harmonizing to Organ et Al ( 2006 ) , cultural context may act upon how OCB is perceived and whether employees are inclined to show OCB.

The intent of this survey is to widen farther the research on leader behaviours, undertaking features, organisational features and single features as ancestors of OCB to a non western context. Owing to the deficiency of research on ancestors of OCB in non US context and the importance of placing them in order to promote OCB to better organization’s public presentation, the present survey purposes to research the consequence of determiners like instrumental leader behaviour, supportive leader behaviour, positive affect, negative affect, function overload and spacial distance on OCB in an Indian context. Previous researches, chiefly conducted in the US, have through empirical observation tested the effects of these variables on OCB. Investigating these past researches, the present survey analyzing Indian employees, aims to research if these findings hold true in a non western context. In trying to make so, the present research besides aims to analyze those variables that have failed to demo a consistent relationship with OCB in the yesteryear.

Section 2: Theory AND HYPOTHESES

This subdivision foremost discusses the significance and the extant research on OCB and its dimension. Then theories on leading, affect, function overload and spacial distance as ancestors of OCB are discussed, followed by the proposed hypotheses.

2.1 The OCB Construct

The construct of Organizational Citizenship Behavior can be traced back to the Hagiographas of Barnard ( 1938 ) , who argued that the willingness of employees to set in concerted attempts is critical for the effectual realisation of organisational ends. This statement was farther supported by Katz ( 1964 ) who noted the importance of self-generated and advanced behaviours that go beyond the formal function demand but are indispensible for organisational effectivity. Based on these penetrations, Bateman and Organ ( 1983 ) and Smith et Al ( 1983 ) coined the term “Organizational Citizenship Behavior” .

Organ ( 1988 ) defined OCB as voluntary behaviour that goes beyond the formal occupation description and that increases the organisations effectivity. Since its construct, OCB has been the mark of extended research. In subsequent surveies, assorted related positive work behaviour concepts such as pro-social behaviour ( Brief and Motowidlo, 1986 ) , civic citizenship ( Graham, 1991 ) , organisational spontaneousness ( George and Brief, 1992 ) , excess function behaviour ( Van Dyne et Al, 1995 ) and contextual public presentation ( Borman and Motowidlo, 1993 ) were proposed and examined. Of all the assorted concepts, Organ’s ( 1988 ) OCB concept is one of the most accompanied 1s, which has encouraged several empirical researches ( Jahangir et al, 2004 ) . Although there have been assorted definitions for OCBs, from the get downing OCBs have been viewed as behaviours that are “relatively more likely to be discretional and less likely to be officially rewarded in the organization” ( Podsakoff et at, 2000, p549 ) .

Despite the particulars of the assorted concept, bookmans have ever considered OCB to be consisting of several behavioural dimensions. In their meta-analysis Podsakoff et al 2000, noted that there are about 30 different signifiers of citizenship behaviours that overlap with each other to a great extent. Although assorted dimensions of OCB have been developed, Organ’s ( 1988 ) five dimension model has been capable to most empirical research. Podsakoff et Al, 1990 provided sound step of these dimensions and have used the concept for several outstanding empirical surveies ( Lepine et al, 2002 ) . Organ ( 1997 ) redefined OCB as “performance that supports the societal and psychological environment in which undertaking public presentation takes place’’ ( p. 95 ) . However this wide definition has yet to have equal empirical support ( Messer and White, 2006 ) ; hence the present survey will follow Organ’s ( 1988 ) original definition of OCB. Organ ( 1988 ) ’s five dimension model, that high spots five specific classs of citizenship behaviours, will be used to mensurate OCB in this survey. The five dimensions are as follows ( Podsakoff et al, 1990, Podsakoff, et Al, 2000 ) : –

a )Altruism-Refers to behaviours that have the consequence of assisting another individual with work related undertaking or job. For e.g. assisting a coworker gimmick up with back log of work

B ) Courtesy– Refers to behaviours aimed at forestalling work related jobs from happening. For e.g. touching base with people before perpetrating to actions that will impact them

degree Celsiuss ) Sportsmanship-Refers towillingness of employees to digest the inevitable incommodiousnesss and inflictions at work without kicking and registering grudges. For e.g. non kicking about fiddling affairs, keeping a positive attitude even when things do non travel their manner.

vitamin D ) Civic Virtue-Refers tobehaviors that indicate responsible engagement in the political procedure of the organisation. It represents a macro degree involvement in the organisation as a whole. For e.g. attending meetings, maintaining abreast of organisations issues are cases of Civic Virtue.

vitamin E ) Conscientiousness-Refers to behaviours that go good beyond the minimal function demands of the organisation in footings of attending, promptness etc.

Interest in OCB has expanded to a assortment of different spheres including human resource direction, selling, leading and strategic direction ( Podsakoff et al, 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Wagner and Rush ( 2000 ) , OCB’s have an accumulative positive consequence on organisations working ( as cited in Jahangir et Al, 2004 ) . Podsakoff and Mackenzie ( 1997, p138 ) opined that OCB may heighten the efficiency of an organisation by increasing managerial and coworker productiveness, by liberating up resources for more productive intents, by increasing the organisations ability to pull and retain the best people, by cut downing variableness in organisations public presentation and by increasing the organisations ability to accommodate to environmental alterations. Previous surveies have through empirical observation tested the relationship between OCB and organisational effectivity. In their survey of pharmaceutical gross revenues squads, Mackenzie et Al ( 1996 ) found citizenship behaviours to be positively related to gross revenues squad effectiveness ( as cited in Podsakoff and Mackenzie, 1997 ) . Similar consequences were besides found by Walz and Niehoff ( 1996 ) in their survey on public presentation step in limited bill of fare eating houses and Podsakoff and Mackenzie ( 1994 ) in their survey of insurance agents.

Owing to the positive effects of OCB on single every bit good as organisational public presentation, the demand to place dependable forecasters of OCB has ever been of great involvement to research workers. Acknowledging variables that encourage employees to exhibit OCB is besides of practical importance to directors, as they may increase organisational productiveness by advancing OCB among their employees. For this intent, assorted employee, undertaking, organisational and leader features have been identified as dependable ancestors of OCB through legion surveies. The earliest research on the ancestors on OCB focused chiefly on employee temperaments and leader behaviours ( Podsakoff et al, 2000 ) . Leader behaviours are dependable forecasters of OCB. Past research chiefly conducted in the US, has shown supportive and instrumental leading to be positively related to OCB. However surveies have besides revealed that cultural context influence leader effectivity ( House et al, 2004 ) . Hence the present survey purposes to analyze whether these relationships between leader behaviour and OCB remain consistent in a non US context. Among dispositional variables, positive and negative affect as forecasters of OCB have attracted considerable attending. Harmonizing to Borman et Al ( 2001 ) further research is needed to better understand the alone consequence of positive temper on citizenship behaviours. Thus the present survey purposes to analyze the alone consequence of positive temper every bit good as the consequence of negative temper on Organ’s five dimensions of OCB.

In their reappraisal Podsakoff et al 2000, noted that undertaking features are of import forecasters of OCB and future research must pay more attending on these variables. Although function overload has shown to hold an consequence on OCB it has non received equal attending. Furthermore among organisational features merely group coherence has shown to hold a important relationship with OCB. Previous research has failed to demo a consistent relationship between spacial distance and OCB. Thus the present survey will besides analyze the effects of function overload and spacial distance on OCB. It is besides of import to observe that bulk of the research on OCB has been conducted in the West, chiefly the US ( Khalid et al, 2009 ) . Thus it is imperative to see if the relationship between these variables and OCB examined in the US remain consistent in a non US context.

The present survey, hence, aims to widen the bing OCB research to a non US context by analyzing the consequence of leader behaviour, affect, function overload and spacial distance on OCB, utilizing a sample of 125 Indian employees from a big private sector company in India.

2.2 Proposed Determinants of OCB

Having highlighted the assorted ancestors of OCB and spreads in old research, this subdivision will look into the extant theories in relation to leader behaviour, affect, function overload and spacial distance, followed by the proposed hypotheses.

2.2.1 Leader Behavior

Leaderships play an of import function in act uponing subsidiaries OCBs. Past research has focused on the consequence of assorted facet of leading like transformational leading ( for e.g. Podsakoff et Al, 1990 ) , magnetic leading ( for e.g. Deluga, 1995 ) , leader member exchange ( for e.g. Wayne et Al, 2002 ) on OCB. OCB is strongly related to both formal and informal leading ( Euwema et al, 2007 ) . In their reappraisal Podsakoff et Al ( 2000 ) noted that transformational leading in peculiar has received considerable sum of attending. In this survey we focus on two signifiers of leading i.e. instrumental leading and supportive leading that tantrum within the way end theory model.

Path Goal Theory of leading

The way end theory of leading is a dyadic theory of supervising, which chiefly deals with undertaking and individual oriented supervisory behaviour ( House, 1996 ) . The Expectancy theory of motive on which the way end theory rests assumes that people choose the degree of attempt they wish to set Forth at work based on their rating that increased attempt will take to increased public presentation, which will in bend lead to increased degrees of wages ( Organ et al, 2006 ) . Based on this position, the way end theory asserts that “the motivational maps of the leader consist of increasing personal final payments to subsidiaries for their end attainment, and doing the way to these final payments easier to go by clear uping it, cut downing barriers and booby traps, and increasing the chances for personal satisfaction en route.” ( House, 1971, p 324 ) . There are four leader behaviours that fit into the way end theory model: instrumental leader behaviour, supportive leader behaviour, participative leader behaviour and accomplishment oriented leader behaviour. Research literature has chiefly focused on instrumental and supportive leader behaviours. Even though the relationship between these behaviours and OCB is non a portion of the original way end model, many bookmans have argued that these behaviours influence OCB ( Organ et al, 2006 ) . The present survey makes usage of the undermentioned definitions of instrumental and supportive leading: –

Instrumental leader Behavior

Harmonizing to House and Dessler ( 1974 ) instrumental leader behaviour refers to behavior directed towards clear uping subsidiaries function outlooks. House ( 1996 ) opined that instrumental leaders provide “psychological construction for subsidiaries by allowing them know what they are expected to make, scheduling and organizing work, giving specific counsel and clarifying regulations and procedures” ( p 326 ) . An instrumental leader clarifies their subordinate’s way by stating them what is expected of them and how they must accomplish it, thereby cut downing uncertainness about their occupations.

Supportive leader behaviour

Supportive leaders are friendly and accessible leaders who express concern for their subordinate’s personal well being. Harmonizing to House ( 1971 ) supportive leaders are sensitive towards their squad members demands. In their survey House and Rizzo ( 1972 ) argue that supportive leaders cut down function struggle, emphasis and anxiousness.

Previous research has shown instrumental leading to cut down function ambiguity ( Podsakoff et al, 1993 ) . Harmonizing to Organ et Al ( 2006 ) subordinates view instrumental and supportive leader behaviours as assisting behaviours, since they cut down uncertainness and look out for the public assistance of the employees. Schnake et Al ( 1995 ) argued that these leader behaviours influences subsidiaries OCB as they may experience compelled to reciprocate to these assisting behaviours. This statement is consistent with Blau’s ( 1964 ) societal exchange theory, under which 1 may presume that subsidiaries who are satisfied with their leaders will expose OCB in exchange of their leader’s supportiveness. Previous surveies have shown that employees reciprocate by exhibiting OCB when they receive favorable intervention from the leaders ( Deckop et al, 2003 ) . Another manner in which instrumental and supportive leaders may act upon subordinate’s OCBs is through societal acquisition procedure ( Podsakoff et al 2000 ) . Leaders act as function theoretical accounts to subsidiaries ( Smith et Al, 1983 ) , in their survey Krebs ( 1970 ) found prosocial behaviours to be peculiarly influenced by function theoretical accounts. Therefore subsidiaries who have instrumental and supportive leaders will emulate these leader behaviours while interacting with other ( for e.g. they will assist their coworkers, attention about the public assistance of their coworkers, show more tolerance ) thereby taking to the show of assorted citizenship behaviours like selflessness, sportsmanship and courtesy.

Harmonizing to Organ et Al ( 2006 ) , subsidiary may develop a liking for their instrumental and supportive leaders as they cut down function uncertainness and show concern for their well being. This wishing would interpret into subsidiaries assisting their leader in ways that will in heighten their OCB. Subordinate may go more tolerant towards certain reverses at work, they may give suggestions, avoid taking long interruption and so on, owing to their liking towards their leader, thereby exposing OCB. This statement is further strengthened by Katz ( 1960 ) research on functional function of attitudes, which states that persons form positive attitudes towards things that cut down uncertainness and enhance stableness.

Past surveies chiefly conducted in the US, have found both leader function elucidation and supportive leader behaviours to hold both a direct every bit good as indirect consequence on subsidiaries OCB ( Podsakoff et al, 1996, Smith et Al, 1983 ) . In their reappraisal Podsakoff et Al ( 2000 ) noted that both instrumental and supportive leader behaviours have a positive consequence on employee’s citizenship behaviours. However it is of import to observe that leader effectivity is influenced by cultural context ( House et al, 2004 ) . The present survey aims to place the determiners of OCB in an Indian organisation. Previous research has found that the authorization dealingss in India are preponderantly parental in nature ( Kakar, 1971 ) , where subsidiaries seek way and support from their supervisors ( Sinha, 1970 ) . Hence by widening the bing research, this survey aims to analyze if the relationship between these leader behaviours and OCB hold true in an Iian context.

Hypothesis 1.1: Instrumental leader behaviour will be positively related to OCB

Hypothesis 1.2: Supportive leader behaviour will be positively related to OCB

2.2.2 Affect

Numerous surveies have focused on analyzing the impact of positive affect and negative affect on OCB. Harmonizing to Borman et Al ( 2001 ) hereafter research is needed to better understand the alone consequence of positive temper on citizenship behaviour. Furthermore old research has shown an inconsistent relationship between negative temper and citizenship behaviours ( Clark & A ; Isen, 1982 ) . Thus the present survey purposes to analyze the effects of positive and negative tempers on Organ’s five dimensions of OCB. Affect in the context of this survey refers to the employee’s temper province over a limited period of clip.

The term ‘Affect’ encompasses of both tempers and emotions. Tempers are “generalized feeling provinces that are non typically indentified with a peculiar stimulation and non sufficiently intense to disrupt ongoing thought process” , whereas emotion are “normally associated with specific events and are adequate to interrupt the idea process” ( Brief and Weiss 2002, p282 ) . While tempers tend to be long lasting, emotions are short lived ( Frijda, 1993 ) . Forgas and George ( 2001 ) noted that tempers affect the manner people think and do things within an organisational scene. It is therefore of import to analyze the relationship between tempers and OCB. The two factor construction theoretical account of temper i.e. positive affect ( temper ) and negative affect ( temper ) has received considerable support. Research has besides testified positive and negative affect as independent concepts ( Watson and Clark, 1997 ) .

Positive Affect or Mood ( PA )

Enthusiasm, joy, exhilaration, pride are some of the positive temper provinces that an employee experiences when in a positive temper. Employees in a positive temper be given to be energetic and enjoy life ( Cropanzano et al, 1993 ) . Positive tempers make people view things in a positive visible radiation ( Carlson et al, 1988 ) ; hence it can be argued that employees in a positive temper will look at the positive side of things and be more tolerant towards any incommodiousnesss caused at work thereby exhibiting citizenship behaviour of sportsmanship. Harmonizing to Clark and Isen ( 1982 ) persons in a positive temper are more willing to offer aid as they view the chance to expose OCB more favorably than others. Rosenhan et al’s ( 1974 ) argued that positive tempers cut down the psychological distance between oneself and others, thereby doing employees attracted to their carbon monoxide worker. Harmonizing to Isen and Baron ( 1991 ) positive temper province besides encourages carbon monoxide operation and reduces aggression among employees. Thus we may anticipate employees in a positive temper to expose OCB as they are more likely to co operate and prevent jobs with coworkers from happening and thereby exhibit courtesy. Carlson et Al ( 1988 ) suggested that persons who experience positive tempers will seek to keep those affectional provinces by assisting other, as assisting others in bend puts them in a good temper. Furthermore persons in a positive temper are besides likely to exhibit OCB in an effort maintain a constructive work environment ( Penner et al, 1997 ) . George and Brief ( 1992 ) noted that positive temper is a determiner of assisting behaviour and interpersonal cooperation. Isen ( 1993 ) further opined that people who experience positive affect value assisting others more than believing about the cost involved in making so. Hence this survey aims to analyze if there exists a relationship between positive affect and OCB in the given context: –

Hypothesis 2.1 Positive Affect will be positively related to OCB

Negative Affect or Mood ( NA )

Persons in a negative temper experience negative affectional provinces such as anxiousness, fright and choler. Peoples sing negative tempers facilitate pessimistic inclinations, as their ideas and perceptual experiences are directed towards greater negativeness owing to mood congruity ( Raghunathan and Pham, 1999 ) . Previous research has found that people in negative temper make “more critical” and “self belittling interpretation” of their ain behaviour ( Forgas, 2002, p 10 ) . Research conducted by Aderman and Berkowitz ( 1983 ) noted that concern about one’s ain behaviour makes people less likely to assist others. Peoples in negative tempers besides produce more avoidant and unfriendly behaviours thereby estranging their coworkers and directors ( Forgas, 2002 ) . Estranging coworkers further leads to negative interpersonal relationships which in bend make employees unwilling to assist and co operate with others. Employees that experience negative temper provinces are besides less likely to be tolerant towards any hindrance at work and may kick about fiddling affairs at work. This can be supported by the statement that persons in a negative temper are more sensitive to negative stimulations and react with greater intense emotions when sing negative occupation events ( Brief and Weiss, 2002 ) . Although Cialdini’s negative province alleviation theoretical account proposes that individual’s in negative temper are likely to assist others, surveies have shown that persons in a negative temper to be less likely to assist others ( Thompson, Cowan, & A ; Rosenhan, 1980 ) .Sing these factors it may be proposed that: –

Hypothesis 2.2 Negative Affect will negatively related to OCB

2.2.3 Role Overload

In their reappraisal Podsakoff et Al, 2000 argued that function perceptual experiences impact some of the organisational citizenship dimensions. Past research has chiefly focused on the relationship between function ambiguity, function struggle and OCB. Role overload is another facet of one’s occupation that may hold an impact on OCB ( Organ et al, 2006 ) . Very few surveies have examined the impact of function overload as an ancestor of OCB. Thus the present research will analyze the consequence of function overload as a determiner of OCB.

Role overload may be defined as “having excessively many function demands and excessively small clip to carry through them” ( Coverman, 1989, p 967 ) . An employee feels overloaded when he/she has excessively much to make in the clip available ( Kahn et al, 1964 ) . Role overload influences the manner employees feel about themselves and their occupations. Previous research has shown function overload to ensue in decreased occupation satisfaction, feelings of choler, anxiousness and personal failure ( Kirmeyer and Dougherty 1988 ) . Thus employees that are high on function overload may be less likely to exhibit OCB. OCBs are behaviours that go beyond one’s formal occupation demands, therefore logically exhibiting OCBs are likely to necessitate extra clip and energy ( Bolino and Turnley, 2005 ) . However employees who are overloaded with work may merely non hold the clip or the energy to assist others or expose OCB’s. Employees that have high function overload may hold deadlines as they have a batch of work to be do in the clip available to them. These deadlines are seeable to others such as their immediate supervisor in the organisations. Therefore when employees are overloaded it is more likely that they channelize all their energy and clip into run intoing those deadlines that are seeable to other than exhibit citizenship behaviours ( Moore and Love, 2005 ) . Jex and Thomas ( 2003 ) suggested that when employees have demanding work load, they are less likely to give themselves to the concerns of others in their work group. Cohen ( 1980 ) besides argued that increased work burden decreases employees assisting behaviour. Sing these factors it may be proposed that employees with increased work burden are less likely to exhibit OCB, owing to the reduced discretional clip available to them and decreased committedness towards their work group ( Organ et al, 2006 ) .

Hypothesis 3.1 Role Overload will be negatively related to OCB

2.2.4 Spatial Distance

Assorted characteristics of the work environment may act upon employee’s OCB. In their reappraisal Podsakoff et Al, 2000 opined that the relationships between organisational features and OCB have been instead varied. Previous research has examined the consequence of organisational features on OCB through the replacements of leading theoretical account. Apart from group coherence none of the other organisational features within the replacement of leading theoretical account have shown to hold a consistent relationship with OCB. The present survey chiefly concentrate on the organisational feature of spacial distance and its impact on OCB.

Distance as defined by Leather ( 1978, p87 ) refers to a “relational construct, typically measured in footings of how far one person is from the other” . Napier and Ferris ( 1993 ) referred to the distance between the supervisor and subsidiary in an organisation as “Dyadic Distance” . Harmonizing to them dyadic distance is “a multidimensional concept that describes the psychological, structural, and functional distance between a supervisor and a subordinate” ( Napier and Ferris 1993, p326 ) . They defined structural distance within an organisation as the distance caused by physical construction ( i.e. work infinite ) every bit good as organisational construction ( i.e. the grade of centralisation ) and by supervisor construction ( i.e. undertaking and societal contact between the supervisor and subsidiary ) . This research chiefly focuses on spacial distance, an facet of structural distance and its effects on OCB. Spatial distance refers to the working distance between the employee and the supervisor, in this context it encompasses the distance caused due the work infinite every bit good as the undertaking contact between the supervisor and the subsidiary.

The sum of interaction chances within a couple may act upon an employee’s motive, ability and chance to expose OCB ( Organ et al, 2006 ) . Ferris and Rowland ( 1985 ) argued that reduced interaction between supervisor and subsidiary affect the understanding and apprehension between them. Increased spacial distance between the supervisor and subsidiary may take to increased undertaking uncertainness owing to infrequent interaction between them. Employees who are spatially distant from their supervisors may besides comprehend them to be less supportive, thereby doing them less motivated to exhibit OCB. Bradner et Al ( 2002 ) further argued that physical distance has an consequence on the ability to influence and the likeliness to co-operate ( cited in Lojeski et Al, 2006 ) . In their survey Liden and Graen ( 1980 ) argued that employees with high quality leader member exchange contribute beyond their formal occupation demands than those employees with low quality leader member exchange. Thus increased spacial distance may take to decreased show of OCB as old researches have shown increased spacial distance to take to lower choice leader member exchange ( Dionne et al 2002, Napier and Ferris, 1993 ) . In their research, Sundstorm ( 1986 ) found that reduced physical distance between the subsidiary and supervisor leads to increased low-level satisfaction. Research has shown that employees who are satisfied to with their occupations are more likely to displace OCBs ( Organ and Ryan, 1995 ) . Therefore one may anticipate employee’s who are spatially distant from their supervisor to be less likely to exhibit OCB.

Harmonizing to Fulk et Al ( 1985 ) subordinates perceptual experience of their handiness in footings of showing their feeling to their supervisor determines their trust in the supervisor, therefore increased spacial distance leads to moo trust in the supervisor. Trust in supervisor has been found to hold a positive impact to OCB ( Aryee et al, 2002 ) ; as a consequence it may be argued that increased spacial distance may be negatively related to OCB. When the spacial distance between the superior and subsidiary is high, the subsidiaries are less likely to be committed ( Podsakoff et al, 1993 ) which would in bend lead to reduces OCB ( Organ et al, 2006 ) . In their survey Podsakoff et Al ( 1996 ) noted that spacial distance was negatively related to altruism even after commanding for other factors. Sing the above mentioned research findings it may be argued that: –

Hypothesis 4.1 Spatial Distance will be negatively related to OCB

Section 3: Method

3.1 Sample and Procedure

For this survey, a standardized questionnaire was distributed across a big private sector company in India. In order to keep confidentiality the organisation will be referred to as Company X in this survey. Company X is one of India’s largest private sector companies with an one-year turnover of US $ 35.9 billion. The current planetary recessions has had a significant consequence on the Indian market. Management at Company X expressed concern about employee’s willingness to exhibit OCB due to the alterations been undertaken within the organisation owing to the current economic crisis. Although Company X is doing attempts to guarantee employees work in a secure and supportive environment, they expressed involvement in cognizing if direction could take stairss to heighten employee’s OCB.

200 questionnaires along with covering letters explicating the intent of the survey were distributed during the on the job hours with the permission of the HR section of the company. The questionnaire was administered across assorted sections to executives, directors, senior directors and general directors. The principle for administrating the study across assorted sections and assorted managerial degrees was to capture the diverse sentiment about their immediate supervisor’s behaviour, spacial distance and function overload, which vary across sections and the degree of hierarchy. Respondents were asked to return the completed questionnaires in the pre addressed envelope provided to them. Of the 200 questionnaires, 125 completed questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 62.5 % . The respondents included 100 ( 80 % ) males and 25 ( 20 % ) females. Out of the entire sample 36.8 % employees were executives, 45.6 % were directors, 9.6 % were senior directors and 8 % were general directors. The mean age of the respondents was 35 old ages and mean term of office was 7 old ages.

The questionnaire consisted of 70 points which was divided into 4 subdivisions ( attached as Appendix 1 ) . Respondents were given clear instructions about how to make full the questionnaire and were expected to make full the questionnaire at one spell to guarantee that treatments with coworkers did non act upon their responses. Stairss were taken to guarantee complete confidentiality, employees were given the confidence that responses would be used entirely for the intent of this survey and the consequences would be reported merely in aggregative signifier where in no single responses could be identified. Once filled, the respondents sealed their responses in the pre addressed envelope provided to them and direct it straight to the research worker.

3.2 Measures

The points for the questionnaire were taken from standardized graduated tables ; some points were modified to accommodate the demand of the survey.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior

OCB was measured utilizing modified points from the OCB graduated table developed by Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter ( 1990 ) . The graduated table was chosen because of its good psychometric belongingss ( Podsakoff et al, 1990 ) and because it has been used extensively in several first-class surveies ( Lepine et al, 2002 ) . Assorted dimensions of the graduated table every bit good as fluctuations of the graduated table have antecedently been used for self study. The original graduated table required supervisors to measure their subsidiaries OCBs. In this survey the points were reworded for employees to self describe their OCB. Self study was of import since the present survey aimed at associating employee affect and OCB. Harmonizing to Morrison ( 1994 ) , trusting on supervisor’s definition of OCB is debatable when there are single factors such as affect that influence employee’s behaviours. Previous research has testified that Organ’s five dimensions of OCB can be measured in an Indian context ( Chaitanya and Tripathi, 2001, Krishnan and Arora, 2008 ) . Hence the graduated table was considered to be appropriate for the present survey. The modified graduated table consisted of 21 points, of which 5 points measured courtesy, 5 points measured selflessness, 4 points measured conscientiousness, 3 points measured sportsmanship and 4 points measured civic virtuousness. Since the graduated table was used for self study, one point mensurating conscientiousness – “Is my most painstaking employee” and two points mensurating sportsmanship – “Is the authoritative “squeaky wheel” that ever needs greasing ( R ) ” and “consumes a batch of clip kicking about fiddling affairs ( R ) were excluded from the present questionnaire as they were considered to be inappropriate for self study. The negatively worded ( change by reversal coded ) points for sportsmanship were positively reworded as it was considered inapt to inquire employees to rate dysfunctional behaviours. Respondents were asked to rate their OCB on a 5 point likert graduated table runing from ‘1-Strongly Disagree’ to ‘5-Strongly Agree’ . The internal consistence dependability for the points of the original graduated table ranged from ( 0.70 to 0.85 ) for each dimension. In this survey, the internal consistence dependabilities for each dimension ranged from 0.71 to 0.88 and for the complete graduated table was 0.76.

Leader Behavior

Both instrumental and supportive leader behaviours were measured utilizing LBDQ-Form XII developed by the Ohio State University. The LBDQ-Form XII was selected as it provides an accurate step for the way end theory’s leading concepts ( Schriesheim and Von Glinow, 1977 ) and it has been used extensively in old leading research. Instrumental leader behaviour was measured by the 10 point initiating construction graduated table of LBDQ-Form XII, while supportive leader behaviour was measured utilizing the 10 point consideration graduated table of the LBDQ-Form XII. It is of import to observe that the points on the graduated table are directed towards group instead than single based descriptions. However Schriesheim ( 1979 ) found that there is a strong relationship between both the group and single descriptions and that measures consisting of either type of points produced the same carbon monoxide dealingss with the results ( cited in Mossholder et Al, 1990, p381 ) . Selmer ( 1997 ) noted that LBDQ instrument is non merely applicable in the US but has besides been successfully applied in Asia. Hence the steps were considered appropriate in the present survey. Items such as ‘Lets group members know what is expected of them’ measured instrumental leader behaviours while points such as ‘Looks out for the personal public assistance of group members’ measured supportive leader behaviours. Respondents were asked to rate how often their immediate supervisors engaged in the specified behaviours on a 5 point Likert graduated table runing from ‘1-Never’ to ‘5-Always’ . The internal consistence dependabilities for instrumental and supportive leader steps were ?= 0.86 and ?= 0.82 severally.

Affect

To mensurate affect or temper of the respondents, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule ( PANAS ) developed by Watson, Clark, Tellegen ( 1988 ) was used. The PANAS is a 20 point self report step of both positive and negative affect. Positive affect was measured by 10 points such as ‘excited, determined, active, divine, watchful, attentive, interested, proud, enthusiastic and strong’ whereas Negative affect was measured by 10 points such as ‘nervous, disquieted, scared, jittery, cranky, afraid, hostile, guilty, ashamed and distressed’ . Previous research has shown that both positive and negative affect concepts are dependable and independent regardless of the capable population or the clip frame or cultural context ( Watson and Clark, 1997 ) . Hence this graduated table was considered appropriate for the present survey. Respondents were asked to bespeak the extent to which they experienced each temper during the past few yearss on a 5 point likert graduated table runing from ‘1-very slightly/not at all’ to ‘5-extremely’ . The internal consistence dependabilities for positive affect and negative affect were ?= 0.86 and ?= 0.86 severally.

Spatial Distance

Spatial distance was measured utilizing 4 points mensurating spacial distance ( SPAT ) , from the original 74 point graduated table of revised replacement of leading developed by Podsakoff, Niehoff, Mackenzie and Williams ( 1993 ) . The graduated table is dependable with good psychometric belongingss ( Podsakoff et al, 1993 ) . Respondents were asked to bespeak the grade to which they perceived their immediate supervisor to be spatially distant from them. SPAT included points such as ‘My immediate supervisor and I are rarely in existent contact or direct sight of one another’ which was measured on a 5 point Likert graduated table runing from ‘1- Strongly Disagree’ to ‘5- Strongly Agree’ . The internal consistence dependability for this step was ?=0.75.

Role Overload

Role overload was measured with the original Role Overload Scale, a three-item function overload graduated table developed by Beehr, Walsh and Taber ( 1976 ) . The 3 points include, ‘I am given adequate clip to make what is expected of me on my occupation ( change by reversal coded ) , ‘It frequently seems like I have excessively much work for one individual to do’ , ‘the public presentation criterions on my occupation are excessively high’ . Respondents were asked to bespeak the grade to which they agreed with the given statement on a 5 point Likert graduated table runing from ‘1-Strongly Disagree’ to ‘5-Strongly Agree’ . The internal consistence dependability for this step was ?=0.64

3.3 Analysis

The five dimension of OCB are related to one another and are tantamount indexs of OCB ( Lepine et al, 2002 ) . Therefore one can presume that all the ascertained measures of the statements were lending every bit as a step of OCB. Sing these factors the present survey made usage of the mean of each point for analysis. An overall mark of OCB was created by calculating the agencies across all the 21 points ( Allen et al, 2000 ) . In order to keep consistence and retain the graduated table scope from 1-5, a similar process was adopted for all other points mensurating each of the independent variables.

Control Variables

Previous research has found demographic characteristics such as gender ( Kidder, 1998 ) , age, and term of office ( Morrison, 1994 ) to act upon OCB ( cited in Coyle-Shapiro, 2002 ) . Hence age, gender and term of office were included as control variables. Designation and section of the employees were besides included as control variables as these factors were linked to the term of office for some employee in the given organisation and therefore could potentially act upon their OCB.

In order to analyze the informations, univariate analysis which consisted of descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis which consisted of Pearson’s carbon monoxide relation coefficients, multivariate analysis which consisted of multiple arrested developments and the Cronbach alphas for all steps were calculated utilizing SPSS 16.0.

Section 4: Consequence

Since the survey made usage of self study to mensurate OCB, it was indispensable to analyze if there were any apparent prejudices in the responses. The descriptive statistics for the OCB graduated table for this sample are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

OCB Descriptives

Nitrogen

Valid

125

Missing

.000

Mean

4.125

Median

4.100

Std. Deviation

.282

Lopsidedness

.165

Std. Mistake of Skewness

.217

Kurtosis

-.296

Std. Mistake of Kurtosis

.430

The mean for the OCB graduated table was 4.125 with a median of 4.100, a lopsidedness of.165 with a standard mistake of lopsidedness as.217 and a kurtosis of -.296 with standard mistake of kurtosis was.430. The descriptive statistics indicate that the responses were usually distributed as the mean and median are similar and the lopsidedness and kurtosis are less than twice their standard mistakes. Overall in the organisation at that place seems to be a high equity of OCB as noted by the higher average value of 4.12 but at that place seems to be no apparent lopsidedness in the responses towards OCB, as marked by the normal distribution.

Table 2 below indicates the agencies, standard divergences and Cronbach alpha’s for all the variables studied in this research. Altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness and sportsmanship dimensions of OCB have comparable agencies of 4.06, 4.23, 4.41 and 4.31 severally. Merely civic virtuousness reported to hold a comparatively low mean of 3.61. Therefore bespeaking that, the employees in the sample exhibited comparatively low engagement in the political procedure of the organisation. The mean for instrumental leader behaviour came out to be 4.14, bespeaking that the employees in the sample viewed their leaders to supply them with greater function elucidation.

Table 2

Mean, Standard divergences and Cronbach dependabilities for all the variables

Variables

Mean

South dakota

?

OCB

4.12

.28

0.76

OCB-Altruism

4.06

.50

0.84

OCB- Courtesy

4.23

.38

0.74

OCB-Conscientiousness

4.41

.60

0.88

OCB-Sportsmanship

4.31

.48

0.71

OCB- Civic Virtue

3.61

.67

0.83

Instrumental Leader Behavior

4.14

.61

0.86

Supportive Leader Behavior

3.86

.63

0.82

Positive Affect

3.92

.65

0.86

Negative Affect

1.73

.64

0.86

Role Overload

2.90

.56

0.64

Spatial Distance

2.58

.82

0.75

As shown in the tabular array 2, the mean for negative affect for the sample is low at 1.73. The low mean indicates that overall in the sample employees expressed about no negative tempers in the given clip frame. The Cronbach alpha’s for all graduated tables except function overload were above 0.70 thereby bespeaking good internal consistence dependabilities. The Cronbach alpha for function overload was less satisfactory at 0.64. This could likely be attributed to the fact that the function overload graduated table is multidimensionality in nature as it measures both the qualitative and quantitative function overload and has little figure of points in the graduated table ( Kelloway and Barling, 1990 ) .

The Pearson’s correlativity coefficients for the variables with OCB and its dimensions are presented in Table 3. The correlational analysis illustrates that the carbon monoxide relation coefficient between OCB and instrumental leaders behavior is positive and important at R = .64, P ? 0.01. Therefore Instrumental leader behaviour is positively related to OCB, thereby back uping Hypothesis 1.1. The co relation coefficients between each of the dimensions of OCB and instrumental leader behaviour besides show a positive and important relationship. Instrumental leaders behavior is positively related to selflessness ( ALT ) at R = .37, P ? 0.01, to courtesy ( COU ) at r= .30, P ? 0.01, to conscientiousness ( CONS ) at R = .44, P ? 0.01, to sportsmanship ( SPOR ) at R = .18, P ? 0.05 and to civic virtuousness ( CIVI ) at R = .37, P ? 0.01. The consequences besides indicate that the correlativity coefficient between OCB and supportive leader behaviour is positive and important at R =.56, P ? 0.01. Therefore Supportive leader behaviour is positively related to OCB therebyback uping Hypothesis 1.2. Like instrumental leader behaviour, supportive leader behaviour excessively shows a important and positive relationship with all the dimensions of OCB.

Table 3

Correlations

Variables

Pearson’s Correlation with OCB and its Dimensions

Elevation

COU

Con

SPOR

CIVI

OCB

Instrumental Leader Behavior

.37**

.30**

.44**

.18*

.37**

.64**

Supportive Leader Behavior

.34**

.24**

.28**

.20*

.39**

.56**

Positive Affect

.12

.32**

.24**

.31**

.09

.38**

Negative Affect

.06

-.06

-.17

-.10

-.03

– .12

Role Overload

.07

-.03

.04

.09

.19*

.16

Spatial Distance

.19*

-.15

.07

-.22*

-.06

-.04

The two tailed trial of significance was used. *p ? 0.05 **p ? 0.01

Alt= Altruism, Cou= Courtesy, Cons= Conscientiousness, Spor= Sportsmanship and Civi =Civic Virtue

As seen in the tabular array 3, supportive leader behaviour shows a positive relationship with selflessness ( ALT ) at R =.34, P ? 0.01, with courtesy ( COU ) at R =.24, P ? 0.01, with conscientiousness ( CONS ) at R =.28, P ? 0.01, with sportsmanship ( SPOR ) at R =.20, P ? 0.05 and with civic virtuousness ( CIVI ) at R =.39, P ? 0.01. Furthermore there exists a positive and important relationship between OCB and positive affect at R =.38, P ? 0.01, therebyback uping Hypothesis 2.1. Among the dimensions, merely three dimensions of OCB show a positive important relationship with positive affect. Positive affect showed a positive and important relationship with courtesy ( COU ) at R = .32, P ? 0.05, with conscientiousness ( CONS ) at R = .24, P ? 0.01 and with sportsmanship ( SPOR ) at R = .31, P ? 0.01. It was interesting to observe that selflessness and civic virtuousness showed no important relationship with positive affect.

Although old researches have shown selflessness to be positively related to positive temper, in the present survey at that place seems to be no important relationship between positive temper and OCB. This can perchance be explained by the mean of positive affect. As shown in Table 2, the mean for positive affect came out to be 3.92, which suggests that the positive temper among employees was non really high. As the mean of positive affect is comparatively low, it may explicate why it did non demo a important relationship with all the dimensions of OCB. Another possible ground for positive affect to demo an undistinguished relationship with selflessness and civic virtuousness would be the current economic crisis. Owing to the current planetary recession and increased layoff, the bing employees have to cover with their ain increased work force per unit areas and under such fortunes even if an employee is in a positive temper he/she may non happen the chance or clip to assist others with their work or voluntarily attend meetings. The correlational analysis further indicates no important relationship between OCB, negative affect, function overload and spacial distance. Thereby supplyingno support for Hypothesis 2.2, Hypothesis 3.1 and Hypothesis 4.1.

After analyzing the relationship between the variables, a multiple arrested development was conducted with OCB as the dependent variables and all other variables as the independent variables in order to analyze the strength of the association between the variables. The consequences of the multiple arrested development analysis are presented in Table 4.

Table 4

Multiple arrested development analysis foretelling OCB

OCB

Independent Variables ? T Sig

Instrumental Leader Behavior.41** 4.73.01
Supportive Leader Behavior.28** 3.42.01
Positive Affect.16* 2.24.02
Negative Affect -.02 – .31.75
Role Overload.02.32.74
Spatial Distance -.05 – .79.43




R2.49

F 19.08**

*p ? 0.05, **p ? 0.01



As shown in Table 4, 49 % of discrepancy in OCB was explained by instrumental leader behaviour, supportive leader behaviour and positive affect. Among all the variables, merely three variables i.e. instrumental leader behaviour, supportive leader behaviour and positive affect proved to be important forecasters of OCB for the given sample. Instrumental leader behaviour is the most important forecaster of OCB. The coefficient for instrumental leader behaviour is ?=.41 at P ? 0.01. Followed by supportive leader behaviour which is the 2nd most important forecaster of OCB ( ? =.28, P ? 0.01 ) . Positive affect although comparatively low in comparing to the leader behaviours besides proved to be a important forecaster of OCB with ?=.16 at P ? 0.05. In the given context, negative affect, function overload and spacial distance did non turn out as important forecasters of OCB.

Since instrumental leader behaviour, supportive leader behaviour and positive affect proved to be important predicators of OCB, a multiple arrested development was conducted with these forecasters as independent variables and each of the dimensions of OCB as the dependant variable in order to find the dimensions that were predicted by these variables. The consequences of the multiple arrested developments are present in Table 5 below.

Table 5

Multiple arrested development analysis foretelling assorted dimensions of OCB

Dimensions of OCB

Independent variable
































































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