Clearance angle is defined as: the angle between the flank face of the tool and the tangent to the work surface originating at the cutting edge. 0 All cutting tools must have clearance angle. However, an excessive angle will not increase the efficiency of cutting and may weaken the tool. 0 It is affected by the shape of the work. (a) Flat surfaces (shaping) (D) External cleaners (turning) (c) Internal cylinders (boring) Dry.
Mar Sheath Fayed Cutting Tool Angles – Page 4 0 (a) External Cylinder ( 50 to 70) Shape of work helps to create Clearance Clearance Reduced Cutting Tool Angles – Page 5 (b) Internal Cylinder ( 80 upwards) x Primary Clearance Secondary Clearance prevents fouling at point X through shape of work Cutting Tool Angles – Page 6 Single Point Cutting Tool Right-Hand Cutting Tool (a) Schematic illustration of a right-hand cutting tool for turning.
Although these tools have traditionally been produced from solid toolboxes bars, they are now replaced by Inserts AT careered or toner tool materials AT various canapés Ana sloes, as snow In ( Cutting Tool Angles – Page 7 Cutting Tool Angles – Page 8 Designations for a Right-Hand Cutting Tool Right-hand meaner the tool travels form eight to left.
Cutting Tool Angles – Page 9 General recommendations for tool angles in turning Cutting Tool Angles – Page 10 Two-Dimensional Cutting Process Schematic illustration of a dimensional cutting process, also called orthogonal cutting: (a) Orthogonal cutting with a well...
-defined shear plane, also known as the Merchant Model. Note that the tool shape, depth of cut, to, and the cutting speed, V, are all independent variables, (b) Orthogonal cutting without a well-defined shear plane. Dry. Mar Sheath Fayed cutting 1001 Angles – Page 1 Geometry of positive rake single point cutting tool
End cutting edge angle (ACE) Top View Nose Radius (NOR) Side cutting edge angle (SEA) Back rake angle (ABA) Side rake angle (as) Lip angle Front View Side View Side relief angle (SARA) End relief angle (ERA) Cutting Tool Angles – Page 12 Geometry of negative rake single point cutting tool Top View Nose Radius (NOR) Side cutting edge angle (SEA) Side rake angle (as) Back rake angle (ABA) Lip angle Side View Front View Cutting Tool Angles – Page 13 0 The most important geometry to consider on a cutting tool are: 0 0 0 Back Rake Angles Reelect Angles Angles
The geometry of a cutting tool is determined by: 0 Properties of the tool material Properties of the workforce Type of cut Cutting Tool Angles – Page 14 Rake Angles Back Rake Angle: 0 It is defined as the angle between the face of the tool and a line parallel to the base of the shank in a plane parallel to the side cutting edge. 0 It affects the ability of the tool to shear the work material and form chip. 0 It can be positive or negative 0 Positive: reduced cutting forces, limited deflection of work, tool holder, and machine 0 Negative: typically used to machine harder metatarsals cuts Dry.
Mar Sheath Fayed Cutting Tool Angles – Pag
15 Rake Angles, count. The Rake angle may also be defined as: is the angle that the tool makes with the workforce normal, see Fig. Cutting Tool Angles – Page 16 Side Rake Angles: It is the angle by which the face of the tool is inclined side ways. U I nee sloe rake angle Ana ten Deck rake angle condone to Tort ten erectile rake angle. This is also called true rake angle or resultant rake angle of the tool. 0 The Rake Angle: 0 The rake angle is always at the topside of the tool. 0 The basic tool geometry is determined by the rake angle of the tool.
Dry. Mar Sheath Fayed Cutting Tool Angles – Page 17 0 The Rake Angle has two major effects during the metal cutting process. 0 One major effect is its influence on tool strength. 0 A tool with negative rake will withstand far more loading than a tool with positive rake. 0 The other major effect is its influence on cutting pressure. 0 A tool with a positive rake angle reduces cutting forces by allowing the chips to flow more freely across the rake surface. Dry. Cutting Tool Angles – Page 18 0 The rake angle has the following functions: 0 It allows the chip to flow in convenient direction.
It reduces the cutting force required to shear the metal and consequently helps to increase the tool life and reduce the power consumption. It provides keenness to the cutting edge. 0 It improves the surface finish. Cutting Tool Angles – Page 19 Positive Rake Angle Positive rake or increased rake angle: Reduces compression and less chance of a discontinuous chip Reduces forces Reduces friction u ten result Is a tanner, less deformed and cooler chip. Cutting Tool Angles – Page 20 Positive Rake Angle, count. 0 But, we have Problems…. As we increase the angle: 0 Reduce the strength of the tool section. Reduce the capacity of the tool to conduct heat away from the cutting edge. 0 However, to increase the strength of the tool and allow it to conduct heat better, in some tools, zero to negative rake angles are used. Cutting Tool Angles – Page 21 0 Some areas of cutting where positive rake may prove more effective are:0 when cutting tough, alloyed materials that tend to work- harden, such as certain stainless steels, 0 when cutting soft or gummy metals, 0 or when low rigidity of workforce, tooling, machine tool, or fixture allows chatter to occur.
The shearing action and free cutting of positive rake tools will often eliminate problems in these areas. Cutting Tool Angles – Page 22 Negative Rake Angle 0 To provide greater strength at the cutting edge and better heat conductivity, rake zero or are negative angles employed on carbide, ceramic, polycrystalline diamond, and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools. Cutting Tool Angles – Page 23 Negative Rake Angle, count. 0 These materials tend to be brittle, but their ability to hold their superior hardness at high temperature results in their selection operation. R high speed and continuous machining 0 Negative rakes
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