Cultural Anthropology exam 1

Acculturation
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct.
Enculturation
Teaches a child him or her culture. unifies people by providing common experiences. The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations. ethnocentrism-The tendency to view one’s own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards.
Ethnography
Fieldwork in a particular culture: People that do this pay attention to and record details of daily lives and try to establish rapport. They cannot be totally impartial, they have to interact in conservations and ask questions.-includes longitude and team research
Ethnology
Cross culture comparison, like surveys
survey research
studies a small sample of a larger population.Often is conducted with little or no contact between study subjects and researchers, as studies are usually conducted by assistants over the phone as in print. Focuses on a small number of Variables.
Etic
Of or pertaining to analysis of a culture from the perspective on
one who is not a participant in that culture, emphasizes categories
Emic
Of or pertaining to the analysis of a cultural system or its features
from the perspective of a participant in that culture, how natives think and categorize the world.
Diachronic
Relates to the way something changes or doesn’t change over time.
Synchronic
Relates to the way something is used at a certain point in time but in different context. Linguistic Phenomenon, not related to Historical Value.
General Anthropology
“four field” anthropology: sociocultural, archaeological, biological, linguistic. This developed as a scientific Field in U.S.
Biocultural
inclusion and combination of biological and cultural perspectives and approaches (to solve a particular issue or problem)
Cultural Anthropology
describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences
Archeological Anthropology
study of human behavior and cultural patterns and process through the culture’s material remains-garbage, burials, artifacts
Historical archaeology
combines archaeological data and textual data to reconstruct historically known groups.
Biological Anthropology
human evolution, genetics, growth and development and biological plasticity.
Linguistic Anthropology
study of language in its social and cultural context across space and time.
sociology and anthropology
share common interest. Sociology describes modern society and uses different data methods.
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Quant: numbers and statistics, Qual: ex) how much fighting do the women of the Sheyan tribe do in comparison to the men? Anthropology is Qualitative.
Reference Field ex)
garbology
Culture
systems of human behavior and thought and that they obey natural laws so they can be suited scientifically
Cultural Leaning
unique to humans, learning depends on uniquely developed human capacity to learn symbols
Geertz
defined culture as ideas based on cultural learning and symbols. Learned through both direct and indirect observation
Psychic Unity of Man
acknowledges individuals vary in emotional and intellectual tendencies and capacities- example of the two families that switched children
Symbols
verbal and nonverbal, they have an associative meaning to something. Symbolic thought is crucial to cultural learning
Genealogical Method
using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections. prominent building block in nonindustrial societies
Understand current social relations
Reconstruct history
Culture
traditions, customs, ideas, transmitted through learning that form and guide beliefs and behavior of people that are exposed to them. Not biological but dependent upon human biology.
Adaptation
process by which organisms cope with environmental changes and hazards. Rate of change accelerated during the past 10,000 years.
Key Culture Consultants
experts on a particular aspect of native life.
Applied Anthropology
one of two dimensions. Look at Data and perspectives and try to solve contemporary problems.
modern anthropology
usually seen as a helping profession; speaks for disenfranchised, solves problems for clients, entire field combats ethnocentrism, highly qualified.
developmental
works on social issues and the cultural dimensions of economic development, commonly stated goal of recent development policy is to promote equality
Disease
scientifically identified health threat
Illness
condition of poor health as perceived or felt
Personalistic Disease Theories
blame illness on such agents as sorcerers, witches, ghosts, or an ancestral spirit.
Naturalistic Disease Theory
explain illness in impersonal terms
Emotionalistic Disease Theory
assume emotional illness
Historical linguists
reconstruct ancient languages and study linguistic variation through time
Cognitive linguists:
examine relationships between language and patterns of thought in different cultures
Sociolinguistics:
investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation
Cultural resource management (CRM):
decide what needs saving, and to preserve significant information about past when sites cannot be saved
Longitude Research
Long-term study of a community, region, society, culture, or other unit, usually based on repeated visits.
Cultural Relativism
The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Extreme relativism argues that cultures should be judged solely by their own standards.
Diffusion
Borrowing of cultural traits between societies, either directly or through intermediaries.
Focal Vocabulary
A set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers.
Phonemics
The study of the sound contrasts (phonemes) of a particular language.
Phonology
The study of sounds used in speech.
Phoneme
Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs.
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
argues that individuals experience the world based on the grammatical structures they habitually use. For example, speakers of different languages may see different numbers of bands in a rainbow. different languages produce different ways of thinking.
multiculturalism
The view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture but also into an ethnic culture.
globalization
The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
Emile Durkheim
believed that the celebration of religious beliefs and sacred ritual united the community and integrated individuals and that it enhanced the sharing of collective sentiments and solidarity in profane areas of social life.