Culinary specialist baking

Two types of flour
General purpose and bread flour

Water
Needed to dissolve the ingredients and distribute them evenly in the recipe

Sugars
Mainly as a sweetener. Used as a tenderizer because it has a softening effect on flour proteins. Give a darker color to crust.

Leavening
Dough or batters are made to rise by leavening. Agents produce volume and lightness bubbles of gas into the dough or batter.

Examples of leavening
Physical- air. Chemical- baking powder or baking soda. Biological- yeast

Yeast
A froth or sediment consisting of the cells of certain minute fungi.

Milk
Milk solids add nutritive value and flavor to baked products and help to retain moisture.

Eggs
Add color, moisture, flavor, and nutritive value. Because of their high protein, they also serve as structure builders and binding agents, and add moisture to cookies.

Salt
To improve flavor. Brings out natural flavor into their ingredients.

Dobie
A mixture of flour and shortening used to grease cake pans.

Dock
To punch or cut a number of vertical impressions in dough.

Fermentation
Chemical changes caused by yeast reproduction that produces formation of carbon dioxide gas, alcohol, and acids that cause dough to rise.

Gluten
A tough elastic protein that gives dough its strength and ability to retain gas.

Knead
To work dough by folding and pressing firmly with palms of hands, turning between folding.

Make- up
To produce individual items from a mass of dough.

Panning
To place made up dough in a pan.

Proof
To cause dough to rise as the final stage of the precooking process performed after make- up prior to baking.

Punch
To lift and fold dough that has fermented, to force out excess gas.

Wash
A liquid brushed on an unbaked product.

Baker’s scraper
For cutting dough and scraping

Metal spatula
To loosen food from a pan; for icing cakes.

Pastry brush
For egg wash, melted butter, and greasing a pan

Quick breads
Some quick breads are biscuits, muffins, corn bread, and coffee cake.

A dull cutter
Will pinch the edges of the dough and leave an uneven product.

3 types of cookies
Drop cookies, sliced cookies, and bar cookies.

Finer the granulation of sugar
The less spread the cookie will have.

Meringue
Made with egg whites or meringue powder.

Cobblers
Bake a fruit filling between two large pieces of pie dough in a sheet pan.

Turnovers
Fold small squares of pie dough over a fruit filling. Seal the edges, and bake the crust and filling together.

Yeast temperatures
Temperatures above 110 will kill yeast. Temperatures below 105 will slow fermentation.

Store made-up sweet dough
For 24 hours at 40f and 60 hours at 32f

Foam cakes
Such as jelly roll and applesauce cake, are made without shortening. They contain less baking powder than batter cakes. They are leavened mainly by beating.

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