crm j 311 essay questions

What are the major components of the classical experiment? Briefly explain these components.
Independent and dependent variables-experiment examining the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable

Pretesting and protesting- subjects are measured on a dependent variable (pretested) exposed to a stimulus that represent and independent variable (post tested). Difference is noted between the first and second measurement of the dependent variable are then attributed to the influence of the independent variable

Experimental and control group’s- control group allows the researcher to control for the effects of the experiment itself, while experimental group is only observed with no intervention

What steps would be involved in selecting a multistage cluster sample of undergraduate students taking criminal justice research methods courses in U.S. colleges and universities?
1. Divide the entire population
2. Then select a number of clusters through simple or systematic random sampling.
3. Then, from the selected clusters the researcher can either include all the students as subjects or he can select a number of subjects from each cluster through simple or systematic random sampling

Briefly explain two basic types of survey questions: open-ended and closed-ended questions. Then, create one survey question for each type dealing with the relationship between gender and criminal activity
Open ended- the respondent is asked to provide his or her own answers

Do you think that being a male would lead to more criminal activity than women?

Closed ended- respondent is asked to select an answer from a list provided

Do you think that being a male would lead to more criminal activity than women?
1. Yes
2. No

Identify the four roles of the observer in field research and give a brief explanation of each.
– Complete participant
Participates fully

– Complete observer
Observes without becoming a participant

– Participant as observer
Make known your position as researcher and participate with the group

– Observer as participant
Make known your position as a researcher, do not actually participate

Define secondary analysis and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of secondary data giving at least two examples of each
Practice of analyzing data that have already been gathered by someone else

Advantage
Cheaper and faster than collecting original data.
Benefit from the work of topflight professionals.

Disadvantage
Problem involves the recurrent question of validity
Lack of control over data quality

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