Consumption of Luxury Food Essay Example
Consumption of Luxury Food Essay Example

Consumption of Luxury Food Essay Example

Available Only on StudyHippo
  • Pages: 16 (4334 words)
  • Published: August 11, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
View Entire Sample
Text preview

In this section, we will discuss luxury food consumerism at Harrods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall. We will cover topics such as customer loyalty incentives, pricing, and the buzz surrounding its luxurious food offerings. Furthermore, we will provide an overview of Harrods and its expansive 1.2 million square feet establishment located in central London.

One of the most prestigious areas in England, Knightsbridge, is a remarkable architectural gem that showcases the Egyptian Escalator. This visionary creation was brought to life by Mr.

English Heritage lists Al-Fayed himself. The establishment features seven floors dedicated to premier international brands and a unique deluxe Food Hall.

Despite the slow growth and development experienced in the United Kingdom and many parts of the E.U., it is not surprising that Harrods attracts approximately 15 million visitors annually. According to the information provided on this we


bsite, Harrods claims that its Knightsbridge location is the largest store in Britain.

Qatar Holdings acquired Harrods from Mohamed Al-Fayed for approximately 1.5 billion in May. This transaction was possible due to the successful recorded track record of the company, which sells a variety of high-quality food and luxury products.

In 2010, Harrods received gross revenues of 519.8 million, resulting in a net profit of 86.5 million for Charles Digby Harrods (www).

According to, the demand for higher-quality products rises alongside an increase in consumer wealth.

The preference for value-added products is growing due to the increasing wealth of society and the widening rich-middle class gap during the economic downturn. Several factors contribute to this change. In the UK, 10% of the population is currently considered affluent, and it is expected that this percentage will rise to 30%.

The European Union has

View entire sample
Join StudyHippo to see entire essay

strong nutrient market, valued at 33.5 billion euros, accounting for 4.6% of the total food and drink expenditure within the EU. In Britain and Ireland, this market is worth 6.1 billion euros, making up 4.5% of their total food and drink expenditure.

By 2023, the global population is projected to reach 7.5 billion, leading to a shift in the perception of luxury from being a want to becoming a need. Luxury items are typically limited in availability and come with high price tags. Based on the profit data provided, it can be deduced that Harrods is likely the top company in the Patisserie and Bakery Market.

The definition of poverty greatly varies between the Western world and developing countries. However, in Harrods, luxury consumption of pastries and baked goods is trendy and its demand is continuously increasing. Even though one may assume that luxury foods are associated with income, this is not the case during the current recession in the UK where incomes are shrinking.

During this period of time, the demand for Harrods Luxury Patisserie and Bakery products has increased. As a researcher employed in Harrods' food production unit, I have observed this trend. Unlike other department stores, Harrods has chosen to maintain its prices and popularity instead of reducing them during the recession. In fact, their popularity has grown despite the addition of VAT at 17%.

In my opinion, the gross revenues of this division of the food halls have not seen a significant decrease, ranging from 5% to 20%. This suggests that there is high demand for Harrods Luxury Patisserie and Bakery, with consumers from all income groups visiting Harrods to purchase even the lowest-priced luxury

Patisserie and Bakery foods. This widespread consumer appeal has contributed to its success. Charles Digby Harrods is renowned worldwide for its association with class.

The survey aims to gather insights from individuals aged 18 and above, specifically those who consume Harrods Patisserie and Bakery products. It excludes participants who consume products from other food halls. The sample size ranges from 30 to 50 participants with a focus on maintaining exceptional quality that sets Harrods apart from competitors. To ensure conciseness, information about respondents' lifestyle and economic status has intentionally been left out.

The survey will not be able to thoroughly analyze the financial background of the respondents. Additionally, although luxury food consumption is a macroeconomic function, this study will only focus on a specific market. The main question addressed by the study is whether the recession is affecting consumption of luxury food in Harrods Food’s Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall. The study also aims to identify key aspects or areas of consumer spending behavior patterns in Patisserie and Bakery Food Halls at Harrods. The objectives of the study include investigating customer consumption and spending behavior with luxury Patisserie and Bakery foods at Harrods.

The text discusses how to increase sales and maintain market share in luxury Patisserie and Bakery foods at Charles Digby Harrods. The objectives will be achieved through an examination of secondary data and the findings of primary data collected through a questionnaire survey. Additionally, Harrods' annual reports on the food industry will be used as secondary data. This chapter will present existing literature on Consumer Behaviour globally and then focus on consumer behavior specifically at Harrods in the UK. It will cover marketing concepts, psychological

concepts, and factual statistics.

The luxury market is experiencing significant growth, and there have been notable changes in consumer behavior (Strauss & Howe, 1999). Expensive foods have a distinct allure and are considered luxuries for special occasions rather than everyday meals. On the other hand, commonly available and affordable foods are less appealing.

Europe is regarded as the cultural hub for fashion, interior design, and culinary arts. Gourmet cooking has evolved into a respected art form, and visitors to the country can discover a wide variety of cuisines.

The demand for high-end food and products, such as luxury nutrients and sweets, is on the rise. It has been noted in literature that younger individuals are more inclined to invest their money in prestigious brands. This inclination can be explained by their disposable income and the lifestyle they adopt, which may be influenced by their own or their parents' financial status.

A Theory of Luxury

'Let them eat cake,' famously quoted Marie Antoinette.

Once considered a high-class drug user with excessive spending habits that irritated the unlucky and less fortunate French people, she is now regarded as someone who indulges in one of their preferred luxury foods. A global revolution has occurred, resulting in individuals becoming wealthier.

Luxury is no longer limited to the embrace of French male monarchs and Queens, but it has become a widespread phenomenon in everyday life. To put it simply, luxury now reflects the indulgence experienced in common places (Twitchell, 2001; Berry, 1994).

The definition of luxury merchandise includes both specialty goods and premium foods. To fully comprehend what qualifies as a luxury item, it is necessary to differentiate it from regular merchandise based on its distinctive characteristics. Luxury

goods are not ordinary products.

Forte and premium nutrients are determined by their worth, excellence, attractiveness, and exclusiveness.

Luxury is defined as the quality possessed by something that is overly expensive, and it has symbolic significance. To specify them, their definitions are summarized below. Common definitions of luxury trade names refer to specific associations with their merchandise since they are extremely associated with their core products. Therefore, the essential features of luxury trade names mostly correspond to those of luxury merchandise.

The definition of luxury brands can be derived from that of luxury merchandises as follows: Luxury trade names are regarded as images in the minds of consumers that encompass associations about a high level of monetary value, quality, aesthetics, rareness, and an exceptionally high grade of further non-functional associations (c. f.

According to Heine (2010), luxury merchandise and brand ratings are distinct for luxury manufacturers due to their exceptional features. Within the luxury product sector, there are variations, including accessible luxury products that are affordable for most consumers occasionally, and exclusive luxury products that are only affordable for the wealthy.

Both forte and epicure nutrients are unique foods/delicacies that often highlight regional differences. They are not as consistent as artisan products or premium foods.

Premium and crafted merchandise are produced using high-quality ingredients and meticulous techniques, whether on a large scale or by skilled craftsmen. These items provide the best in terms of taste, texture, flavors, and aromas, while also potentially offering nutritional and health advantages. Additionally, they evoke a strong sense of place.

The goods produced by a manufacturer encompass their tradition and civilization, as demonstrated through their achievements, character, values, and production process. These products are often renowned

for their longstanding reputation and are primarily made for local consumption.

Certain products are exclusively available from a single source, such as purchasing directly from the manufacturer or at a market. These products are highly esteemed and easily distinguishable due to their limited quantity and restricted production and distribution.

Artisan merchandise manufacturers are engaged in all stages of production, including manufacturing and sales. They possess extensive expertise, talent, and a deep commitment to their craft and the exceptional quality of their products. Typically, a small team is responsible for creating each category of artisan merchandise.

Food Tourism

In the 20th century, industrialization posed a threat to traditional artisan manufacturers, leading them to abandon their time-honored techniques. However, in recent years there has been a revival in the desire for top-notch products crafted using these traditional methods. Consequently, food tourism has emerged as a substantial industry worth around 4 billion annually.

(Lane M. 2005) Food serves multiple purposes for consumers: it has a functional role in prolonging life; it plays a vital part in our celebrations and acts as a way to socialize; it also offers entertainment and appeals to our senses and primal instincts; furthermore, it enables us to discover new cultures and countries. Additionally, for many individuals, food becomes an immersive experience (i.

e. More than just functional, dining becomes a sensory and animalistic experience when incorporated into our travels. It can also hold symbolic and ritualistic importance, taking on new meanings and significance. Even a simple meal has the potential to be etched in our memories forever when enjoyed amidst breathtaking scenery or as the culmination of an extraordinary day exploring a new city.

According to Swarbrooke and Horner, nutrient

tourism stakeholders, such as restaurant and cafe owners, cooking school providers, festival organizers, hotel and resort managers, were mentioned by Hall M and McIntosh (2000).

The text explains the importance of understanding the decision-making process of tourists who choose to purchase and consume food products from bed and breakfast operators and nutrient manufacturers. By gaining insight into their decision-making process, we can improve our understanding and know when to intervene effectively. This intervention can be crucial in influencing their decisions.

Consumer behaviour research is the study of why people, either individually or in groups, purchase the products and services we offer. It helps us understand the reasons behind their decisions and how they make them (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999).

As food tourism grows in popularity, it becomes more accessible and comprehensible. Nevertheless, selecting a destination and determining which attractions to visit can be difficult. For tourists who have an affinity for exceptional cuisine and delectable pastries, it is commonplace for them to prioritize a visit to Harrods during their time in the UK.

During their first visit to Harrods, tourists usually just observe and explore. However, on their second visit, they tend to purchase at least a small amount of luxury food or pastries. Nonetheless,

consumer spending has decreased in the UK. Harrods has experienced a growth in profits in their Patisserie and Bakery department due to their high-end food products. The consumer buying behavior study conducted by Kolb M. (2006) connects Maslow's theory and consumer purchases, stating that Maslow's theory directly relates to marketing because many of these needs can be fulfilled through the purchase of products. It is worth mentioning that once a consumer satisfies their nutritional

needs, the article implies that they tend to stop making purchases.

Harrods luxury Patisserie and Bakery provides UK and international consumers with the clothing and shelter they require. All other purchases fulfill their higher demands. Hence, the researcher concludes that consumers associate Harrods luxury Patisserie and Bakery food with self-actualization, fulfilling a specific niche for Harrods. This interest lies in premium products.

The growth of specialty and artisan products is also impacted by the slow increase in population, resulting in a slowdown in overall food market sales. In this scenario, foods that demand a higher price and offer higher profits become the only sector that is growing, thus becoming the target of multiple businesses. Artisan.

The distribution of Forte and premium nutrients is on the rise in the retail sector as consumer purchasing trends shift. Rather than choosing cheaper alternatives, consumers now prefer value-added premium products. This change is fueled by an increasing demand from consumers with growing wealth for these types of products. Currently, 10% of the UK population belongs to the affluent category, but this percentage is projected to reach 30%.

Fortified food, premium food, and specialty food are expected to account for 45% of the total food sales in the UK. The specialty market in the country is valued at ?B and has experienced a growth rate of 20% since 2003, resulting in a total value of ?5 bn. British consumers who favor high-quality food typically allocate approximately ?900 per year to this specific category.

Research Methodology

This chapter focuses on the methodology used to conduct the present survey of Consumption of Luxury Food in Harrods Food’s Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall. It

discusses various methodological approaches that will ensure a systematic process of planning and design. The consideration of this process will influence the selection of methods and approaches to be presented in this chapter.

This paragraph discusses various elements of a research project, including the research intent, research attack, research scheme, and information collection methods.

Informations analysis and quality criterions.

Research Purpose

Yin (1994) states that research intent can be grouped and classified as exploratory, descriptive or explanatory. Exploratory research is conducted to clear up the nature of a job, where the intent is to supply penetrations and understanding, non to supply conclusive grounds.

Exploratory research is carried out with the expectation that further research will be conducted (Zikmund, 2000; Bryman, 1989). The exploratory survey method is utilized to develop propositions for future research (Yin).

Descriptive research is utilized to illustrate a specific population or phenomenon, addressing questions of who and what.

Where and how inquiries arise is not explained in the text. In summary, the text does not provide an explanation for the cause of the findings. However, when problem-solving in a business context.

According to Zikmund (2000), having a clear understanding of a situation is often enough for descriptive research and there is no need to know the reasons behind it. For conducting descriptive research, the researcher needs prior knowledge of the problem situation and a clearly defined set of information. This distinction between exploratory and descriptive research is significant.

Both descriptive and explanatory research require structured methods for selecting sources of information and collecting data. Descriptive research focuses on presenting information and facts, while explanatory research analyzes situations or problems to explain the relationship between variables (Malhotra, 1996; Saunders et al.).


to McNabb (2008), explanatory research aims to explain why certain phenomena occur, establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables, and explain differences in group responses. The purpose of this Research Study is to understand the success of Harrods, specifically in their luxury food service, particularly the Patisserie and Bakery section in the Food Hall.

The Research Study aims to analyze three core elements of Harrods' customer approach: design, execution, and evaluation. It focuses specifically on their operations within the Luxury food service industry. The research is descriptive in nature as it aims to describe how Harrods operates.

According to Zikmund (2000), research can be conducted in various ways, incorporating a theoretical and methodological approach. The theoretical approach can be deductive or inductive, while the methodological approach can be qualitative or quantitative (Zikmund, 2000). Zikmund (2000) additionally states that when collecting information, quantitative research is employed.

Both qualitative and quantitative information can be collected. Qualitative data can be gathered through methods such as Participant Observation, Non-participant Observation, Field Notes, Reflective Diaries, and Structured Interviews.

Semi-structured interviews, unstructured interviews, and analysis of papers and other materials are contrasted.

Quantitative research techniques involve the collection of measurable information, such as numbers. These methods typically utilize statistics, tables, and graphs to present their findings. They are distinct from qualitative methods.

The survey under focal point is quantitative and utilizes an explorative design, which is commonly employed to gather knowledge on a phenomenon that has not been adequately explored. The researcher believes it is necessary to study this issue as there is limited information concerning the Consumption of Luxury Food in Harrods Food’s Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall.

Sampling Techniques

The sampling technique used in this study is simple

random sampling, also known as chance sampling. According to Kumar (2008), this method ensures that every point in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

In the case of limited existence, every item has an equal chance of being selected. In order to select the sample for this research survey, each item will be given a number from 1 to 100. The survey will only include respondents who are 18 years old and above, ensuring that they are mature enough to comprehend and respond to the interview questions.

3.5 Population The survey aims to include 30-50 respondents from the age group of 18 years and above. The survey will be conducted at Harrods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall.

Knightsbridge. London. The population will consist solely of consumers and buyers from the aforementioned food hall.

Research Instruments

Both primary and secondary information pertaining to this subject will be used in this research study. The research will only be credible and the analysis will only be comprehensive if both instruments are utilized together.

Primary Data

Primary data for this research study will be obtained through firsthand experience, using questionnaires for initial data collection.

Questionnaires will be prepared before conducting in-depth interviews with respondents at Harrods.

Secondary Data Beginnings

For this research survey, Secondary Data Sources will include a literature review with sources from the library, web, and reports. Other secondary sources of information will be obtained from theses, newspapers, and internal company reports.

Data Collection Instruments

The data collection instruments for this study will involve administering a questionnaire to 30-50 respondents. The interview schedule will be developed based

on the survey objectives and goals, consisting of structured open-ended and close-ended questions. Section A of the questionnaire will focus on income, while Section B will gather information on types of luxury food. Section C will assess respondents' consumption of luxury food.


At the point when the respondents complete the questionnaire, the researcher will conduct interviews with them. This approach will help the researcher better understand consumer spending on Luxury Food items in Harrods.

Proposed Analysis

This chapter will emphasize the Research plan as it will outline the steps for conducting the research in terms of description, timing, and presentation. It will serve as a guide to execute and monitor the project, allowing the researcher to achieve the research objectives.

The collected information will be analyzed and presented graphically in tables and charts. This will allow for comparison of empirical findings. To conduct statistical analysis on the quantitative data, the researchers will use the Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS) and Microsoft Word software. These tools will provide a comprehensive and flexible approach to statistical analysis and data management for the research.

This research will provide a comprehensive analysis of various studies, graphs, pie charts, and other forms of data. The outcomes of this study will offer valuable insights into consumer behavior, trends, and patterns specifically for Harrods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall.

Second, the research findings and recommendations can enlighten Harrods on methods to continue to stay ahead in the market during any economic conditions as a global brand. Lastly, the findings may entice Charles Digby Harrods to develop a more dynamic projected marketing strategy to cater to both tourists and local trends throughout the



  1. Alpert, J. I. and M. I. Alpert (1990).

"Music has an impact on mood and buying intentions." (Psychology; A; Marketing 7: 109-34.)

  • Aghazadeh, S. -M. (2005).
  • "Layout schemes for retail operations: A case study." Management Research News 28 (10): 31 – 46.

  • Berry, C. J.
  • (1994) The Idea of Luxury. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Baumann. D.

    J. R. B.

    Cialdini. et Al. (1981). "Altruism as hedonism: assisting and dissoluteness as tantamount responses." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40: 1039-46.

    • Batra.

    R. and O. T. Ahtola ( 1991 ).

    "Measuring the initial consumer attitudes in terms of hedonic and utilitarian aspects." Marketing Letters 2: 159-70.

  • Babin, B. J. and W.
  • The text below includes a citation from R. Darden's 1994 study titled "Work and/or merriment? Measuring hedonic and useful shopping value" in the Journal of Consumer Research (26, 4: 644-56). It also mentions Babin as a separate reference.

    B. J. and L. Babin (2001). "Seeking something different? A theoretical model of schema typicality in consumer affect."

    The text "purchase purposes and perceived shopping value." can be found in the Journal of Business Research, volume 54, issue 2, pages 89-96.

  • The author of this article is Beardon, W.O.
  • . R. G. Netemeyer. et Al.

    (1989). "Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence." Journal of Consumer Research 15: 473-81. Bellizzi, J. A. and R.

    E. Hite (1992). "Environmental colour, consumer feelings, and purchase likeliness." Psychology; A; Marketing 9 (5): 347-63.

  • Bone.
  • P. F. and P. S.

    The text below includes a journal citation and an author's name in an unordered

    list within a paragraph tag:

    Ellen ( 1999 ) . “Scents in the market place: explicating a fraction of smell. ” Journal of Retailing 75 ( 2 ) : 243-62.

  • Bagozzi. R. P.
  • . J. A. Rosa. et al. (1998).

    Marketing Management, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, Dubois B.

    and Duquesne. P. (1993) "The Market for Luxury Goods: Income versus Culture". European Journal of Marketing. Vol.

    27. No. 1. pp. 34-44.

    Fast Track in Association with the Sunday Times. 2011 Buyout Track 10 Biggest. Available At: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fasttrack. co. uk/fasttrack/leagues/dbbtDetails.

    asp? siteID=61 ; A ; compID=737 ; A ; yr=2011 ( Accessed on 9. 04. 2011 )

  • Hofstede. G. ( 1980 ) .
  • Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Sage. Newbury Park. CA.

    Hofstede. G.

    (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill. New York, NY.

  • Hofstede. G.
  • (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

    (1996). Hitt. J.

    "The theory of supermarkets." New York Times Magazine: 56-61. Heine, K. (2010) "A Theory-based and Consumer-oriented Concept of Luxury Brands."

    Presented at the In Pursuit of Luxury Conference. London. 18 June 2010. Hall M.

  • McIntosh (2000) GlobalSpec. Chapter 3: Consuming Tourists: Food Tourism Consumer Behaviour Available at: hypertext transfer protocol://www.
  • (Accessed on 15.05.2011) hypertext transfer protocol://

    ( Accessed on 08. 05. 2011 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //factoidz. com/harrods-the-famous-british-landmark-department-store-changes-ownership-in-2010-and-remains-out-of-british-hands/ ( Accessed on 09. 05. 2011 )

    • Kumar.

    V. and R. P. Leone (1988).

    "Measuring the impact of retail store promotions on brand and store transformation." Journal of Marketing Research25 ( 2 ) : 178-85.

  • Kumar R. C. Dr ( 2008 ) .Research Methodology.S. B Nangia for APH printing corporation.New Delhi.India.
  • Kolb M B. ( 2006 ) .Tourism Selling for Cities and Towns.Butterworth-Heinemann.Oxford.

  • Laband.D. N. ( 1991 ) ."An objective measure of search versus experience goods." Economic Inquire 14: 497-506.Laaksonen.M. ( 1993 ) ."Retail backing dynamics: learning about daily shopping behavior in contexts of changing retail structures." Journal of Business Research 28 ( 1/2 ) : 3-174.Lichtenstein.D. R. .
  • N. M. Al.( 1993 ) ."Price Perceptions and Consumer Shopping Behavior: A Field Study." Journal of Marketing Research 30 ( 2 ) : 234-245.
  • Lewison.D. M. ( 1997 ) .Retailing.Englewood Cliffs.NJ..Prentice-Hall.Lane M. 2005.A taste for gastro-tourism.BBC News Magazine.Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // memory ( Accessed on: 09.04.2011 ) .
  • Malhotra.N. K ( 1996 ) .Marketing research: an applied orientation.2nd edition.New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
  • McNabb.D. E ( 2008 ) .Research Methods in Public Administration and Non Profit Management: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches.2nd edition.M. E Sharpe Inc.New York.U. S. A.
  • Nicholls.J. A. F. .F. Al.( 2002 ) ."The article 'The seven twelvemonth scabies?Mall shoppers across clip' published in the Journal of Consumer Marketing 19 ( 2 ) : 149 – 165 discusses the phenomenon of scabies among mall shoppers over a period of seven years. Another study titled 'Time and company: cardinal factors in Latino shopping behaviour' by J. A. F. Nicholls, S. Roslow, et al. looks at the influence of time and company on Latino shopping behavior in the Journal of Consumer Marketing 14 ( 3 ) : 194-205. In 'The Determinations of Standard of Layout for Retail Concerns' published in The University Journal of Business 4, J. F. Pyle explores the determination of layout standards for retail businesses (1926). Simonson and Winer's research
  • article titled 'The influence of purchase measure and show format on consumer penchant for assortment' was published in the Journal of Consumer Research 19 ( 1 ) : 133-8. Mittelstaedt, Stassen, et al.'s study 'Assortment convergence: its consequence on shopping forms in a retail market when the distributions of monetary values and goods are known' is published in the Journal of Retailing 75 ( 3 ) : 371-86 (1999). The article 'Store atmosphere.temper and buying behaviour' by K. Spiesa, F. Hesseb, et al. is published in the International Journal of Research in Marketing 14 ( 1 ) : 1-17, discussing the relationship between store atmosphere, mood, and buying behavior. The book 'Tourism;Consumer behavior' by Swarbrooke and Horner (1999) explores consumer behavior in tourism. Tomkins' article 'Step frontward GenerationY: Advertisers are following alternate tactics to seek to appeal to today’s teenager' is published in The Financial Times on 28th December. Twitchell's book 'Living it Up' focuses on consumer behavior and is published by Columbia University Press. Lastly, Triandis' article titled 'Vertical and horizontal individuality and collectivism' discusses dimensions of individualism and collectivism."- "Progresss in International Comparative Management.Vol.12.pp.7–35."
    - "Wong.Y. N. ;A ;Ahuvia.C. A. ( 1988 ) .“Personal gustatory sensation and household face: luxury ingestion in Confucian and Western Societies” .Psychology ;A ;Marketing.Vol.15 ( August ) No.5.pp.423-441."
    - "Wakefield.K. L. and J. J. Inman ( 2003 ) .“Situational monetary value sensitiveness: the function of ingestion juncture.societal context and income.” Journal of Retailing 79 ( 4 ) : 199-212."
    - "Workman C ( July 2005 ) .Market Report -The Artisan Bakery Sector In The United Kingdom.Commissioned By Invest Northern Ireland.Available at: World Wide ( Accessed on 9.04.2011 )"
    - "Yin.R. K

    ( 1994 ) .Case Study Research: Design and Methods.2nd edition."

    Get an explanation on any task
    Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds