Consumer Behavior – Ch. 6

What is Learning?
A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience. Knowledge acquired through experience, study, or being taught.
What are the Three Kinds of Learning?
– Incidental
– Behavioral
– Cognitive
Incidental Learning
Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge
Behavioral Learning
The acquisition of knowledge as a result of responses to external events
Cognitive Learning
Acquisition of knowledge through internal mental processes
What are the Two Kinds of Behavioral Learning?
-Classical Conditioning
-Instrumental Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Involves a stimulus that elicits a response when paired with another stimulus that initially doesn’t elect a response on its own. Ex: Pavlov’s dogs – food (unconditioned stimulus) and bell (conditioned stimulus)
What is a real life example of Classical Conditioning?
Credit cards. Because they make it feel as though you’re not really spending money, since you can’t see it. Leads to bigger and bigger purchases.
Stimulus Generalization
The process that happens when behavior caused by a reaction to one stimulus occurs in the presence of other, similar stimuli. Ex: all ketchup bottles look the same
Stimulus Discrimination
The process that occurs when behaviors caused by two similar stimuli are different.
Brand Equity
Strong associations in consumers’ memories that can be positive, commanding loyalty, or negative, causing brand avoidance
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
Involves an individual learning to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that yield negative outcomes. Positive and negative reinforcement.
What are examples of how a firm can use Instrumental Conditioning? (positive reinforcement)
-Thank you letters
-Frequent shopper card
A marketing strategy that involves turning route customer behaviors into experiences by adding gaming elements to tasks that might otherwise be boring or mundane
Observational Learning
When we watch actions of others and note the reinforcements they receive for their behaviors, this learning is a result of vicarious rather than direct experience. Ex: ads that say “if you do this” you’ll have fun
What is Memory?
A process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed
What are the Three Kinds of Memory?
-Short-Term Memory
-Long-Term Memory
What is Sensory memory?
Information we receive from our senses
What is Short-Term Memory?
Holds limited amounts of information for a limited period of time, essentially our working memory
What is Chunking?
Combining small pieces of information into larger ones that can be thought of as a unit? Ex: 1-800-BUY-SELL
What is Long-Term Memory?
Holds virtually unlimited amounts of information for a long period of time, when something transfers to LTM, learning occurs
What are Associative Networks?
A memory system that organizes individual units of information according to some set of relationships, may include such concepts as brands, manufacturers, and stores. Made up of nodes.
What do the lines between Nodes mean?
The thicker the line connecting nodes, the stronger the association
A cognitive framework that we develop through experience; information is more easily encoded when it’s consistent with an existing schema
What is a Script?
A sequence of events that an individual expects to occur
Why do memories decay?
-State-Dependent Retrieval
-Lack of Salience
-Viewing Context
-Visual vs. Verbal Cues
Why is it tough to measure consumers’ memories accurately?
-The difference between recognition and recall
-Response bias
-Memory lapses (omitting, averaging, telescoping)
Why do marketers want to research memory and learning?
It is important to understand how consumers learn about products and services.
Behavioral Learning Theories
They focus on stimulus-response connections. Learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.
Cognitive Theories
They focus on consumers as problem solvers who learn when they observe relationships
How can Instrumental Conditioning affect a consumer’s purchasing behavior
Learned associations with brands generalize to other products. We can utilize these associations in marketing applications through repetition, conditioned product associations, and stimulus generalizations
What’s an example of when the marketing application of repetition fails and consumers receive too much exposure?
The Izod crocodile on clothes. Too much exposure leads to advertising wear-out.
Spreading Activation
When a marketing message indirectly or directly activates our memory, it will also activate other linked nodes
The Marketing Power of Nostalgia
Marketers may resurrect popular characters to evoke fond memories of the past (retro brands)
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