Conflict in the Niger Delta Essay Essay
The struggle go oning in the Niger Delta stated in 1990. The tensenesss involve foreign oil corporation and members of some Niger Delta’s minority cultural groups. peculiarly the Ogoni and the Ijaw. The instability continued from the 1990s until late even though there are major alterations in the authorities construction. The country environing the Delta is now to a great extent militarized by the Nigerian ground forces and constabulary forces. and legion armed groups belonging to the cultural groups ( Barrett ) . Harmonizing to the Center for International Development and Conflict Management ( “Minorities at Risk.
A Country Case Study” ) force and high offense rate is a common scenario in the Delta because of the stiff competition for oil. Government atrociousnesss with civilian as victims are besides recorded in the country. One of the most conflicted countries in the Delta is Oganiland. Located in the sou’-east of the Niger Delta. Oganiland is a part consisting 404-squale-mile of the country. Shell and Chevron set up their geographic expedition and boring installations in the country upon the find of oil sedimentations in 1957.
The rich oil sedimentation in Oganiland is considered as Nigeria’s foremost petroleum sedimentation for commercial intents. During the geographic expedition of the two largest foreign oil companies. authorities governments and agents forced occupants of the country to go forth. This government-initiated forced emptying on the country affected about half a million cultural minorities belonging to the group Ogonis and other cultural groups ( Agbu ) . They besides attest that the authorities and the foreign oil companies did non carry on any audience with them and offer any amendss.
Despite the strong resistance from the affected minorities. the federal authorities supported the atrociousnesss by amending the Fundamental law that the authorities has the full ownership on all lands within Nigeria and compensation will be based on the harvests and merchandises located in the land during the pickings and non the existent value of the land. These farther allow the pickings of foreign oil corporations on about all of the lands in Oganiland with the aid of the authorities ( “Minorities at Risk. A Country Case Study. ” ) . In the 1980s. the state of affairs of Oganiland and the Oganis deteriorated economically. socially. politically and environmentally.
Dissatisfaction and discontent among the people in Oganiland steadily mounts that in 1992 they formed the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People ( MOSOP ) . It became the chief organisation runing for assorted issues of the Oganis. chiefly cultural and environmental rights. MOSOP became the chief resistance of the Nigerian authorities and foreign oil companies in Oganiland ( Agbu ) . The struggle between MOSOP and oil companies escalated that it resulted to violence interrupting some of the oil companies’ major activities in the country.
MOSOP required $ 10 billion as royalties since the companies started and for the debasement of the environment in Oganiland ( Olusakin ) . However. harmonizing to Agbu ( 2004 ) the oil companies. Shell. Chevron and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. with the aid of authorities governments answered the MOSOP’s demand through force besides. Mass actions and protests started to happen in a day-to-day footing in Oganiland that resulted the forbiddance of public assembly by the authorities. It besides pronounced as Acts of the Apostless of lese majesty any perturbations of oil production and related activities in the country.
Mobilization and repression rose in 1994 where in four small town heads were murdered. The caput of MOSOP. Ken Saro-Wira was detained because of the violent deaths. Hundreds were besides randomly arrested and detained because of the violent deaths. By June of the same twelvemonth. there were about 30 small towns wholly ruined. about 2. 000 deceases and go forthing about 100. 000 Oganis as internal refugees ( Human Rights Watch ) . In 1994 Saro-Wira with other eight Ogani militant were arrested and sentenced to decease. They are executed though hanging by the Nigerian authorities.
The deceases of Saro-Wira and his comrades enraged the people of Oganiland that resulted to more riotous and violent actions against the oil companies. The combativeness of the Oganis inspired other ethic groups to get down their ain battle against the authorities and the foreign oil companies ( Olusakin ) . The Ijaws organized the Ijaw National Congress and Ijaw youth organized the Ijaw Youth Congress. These two groups raise the political consciousness and combativeness of the Ijaw people. They started to put down their demands against the irresponsive cardinal Nigerian authorities and to the foreign oil companies.
They are asseverating that these companies should hold direct and concrete programs to elate the lives of the people in the Niger Delta ( Obi ) . Recently. armed and more hawkish groups like Niger Delta Peoples Vanguard ( NDPV ) . Motion for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta ( MEND ) . Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force ( NDPVF ) and the Nigerian Delta Vigilante ( NDV ) were organized. Although these groups were formed because of the uninterrupted environmental debasement. authorities disregard and societal and political agitation in the country. they are now in struggle on changing political orientations and signifiers of actions ( Obi ) .
Most of them aim to derive control of the area’s rich oil resources. NDPVF and NDV are in struggle with each other. Violence between the groups rose ensuing to disruptive activities in Port Harcourt. the Delta’s oil capital. Supporters of NDPVF transferred to NDV intensifying more the struggle between the two groups ( Agbu ) . After the local and national elections of 2003. NDPVF announced their full-scale war against the authorities ( Olusakin ) . However. MEND is closely attached with NDV. They reached their international repute when they hijacked oil oilers traversing through the state and nearby states.
They randomly detained workers in the oilers for months and demanding for ransom for their release. Last twelvemonth. they attacked assorted oil installings and installations of oil company Shell that resulted to oil monetary value addition. They besides attacked a installation of Chevron. coercing the company to hold operations in the part for that twelvemonth ( Obi ) . In 2005. the cardinal authorities called the National Political reform Conference. Representatives of the Niger Delta raised assorted concerns on the development of the part.
Numerous non-government and human rights organisation have besides called the attending of the cardinal authorities to present reform in the part. There are proposals to split the part into two. Eastern Niger Delta and Western Niger Delta. to do developmental undertakings easier to implement ( Taylor ) . The ventral authorities should besides change over new provinces in the part with at least one metropolis in every province. Taylor ( 2007 ) said that federal offices and ministries should besides set-up their subdivisions in the part to do authorities services more accessible to cultural minorities in the part.
The authorities is besides urged to ordain statute laws obliging oil companies to implement developmental undertakings in their host communities and purely follow environmental Torahs. International civil society groups have besides suggested that the cardinal authorities implement policies to hold more transparence in the grosss and financial affairs on the oil industries. The Washington-based Human Rights Watch ( 2002 ) besides strongly recommends that province security forces should be investigated and persecuted on their maltreatments on the civilians in the part ( p. 5 ) .
The struggle in the part is already decade-old and seems will ne’er stop. The Nigerian authorities should earnestly implement reforms and developmental undertakings in the part to relieve poorness among its people. The more hold on these developments needed. the more people will be agitated to fall in the armed opposition fueled by inequality among the oil company and the cultural minorities of the Niger Delta. Works Cited: Agbu. Osita. ( 2004 ) . Cultural Militias and the Threat to Democracy in Post-Transition Nigeria. Upsala: Nordic African Institue. Barrett. Ejiroghene.
“Why the Troubles in the Niger Delta. ” New African 456 ( 2006 ) : 40-45 “Minorities at Risk. A Country Case Study. ” 2 April 2009. Center fro International Development and Conflict Management. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //cidcm. umd. edu & gt ; . Olusakin. Ayoka Mopelala. “Peace in the Niger Delta: Economic Development and the Politicss of Dependence on Oil. ” International Journal on World Peace 23 ( 2006 ) : 3 Obi. Cyril ( 1997 ) . Globalization and Local Resistance: The Case of the Ogoni versus Shell. Ibadan: University of Ibadan. Obi. Cyril ( 2001 ) . The Changing Forms of Identity Politics in Nigeria under Economic
Adjustment: The Case of the Oil Minorities Movement of the Niger Delta. Upsala: Nordic African Institute. Taylor. Darren. “Niger Delta and Lack of Infrastructure: Major Issues in Nigeria Elections. ” Voice of America. 22 March 2007. 2 April 2009 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. voanews. com/english/ archive/2007-03/Niger-Delta-Conflict-and-Lack-of-Infrastructure-Major-Issues-in-Nigeria-Elections. cfm & gt ; “The Niger Delta: No Democratic Dividend. ” October 2002. Human Rights Watch. 2 April 2009. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. hrw. org/legacy/reports/2002/nigeria3/nigerdelta. pdf & gt ;