Computer Ethics Privacy and Security
Define encryption and explain why it is necessary Identify risks and safeguards associated with wireless communications Recognize issues related to information accuracy, rights, and conduct Discuss issues surrounding information privacy Discuss ways to prevent health-related disorders and injuries due to computer use 3 OF 20 What is a computer security risk? Event or action that causes loss of or damage to computer system 4 Internet and Network Attacks What are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses?
Virus is a potentially damaging computer program Can spread and damage files Worm copies itself repeatedly, using up sources and possibly shutting down computer or network Trojan horse hides within or looks like legitimate program until triggered Does not replicate itself on other computers Payload (destructive delivered when you open file, run infected program, or boot computer with infected disk in disk drive 5 How can a virus spread through an e-mail message? Step 1.
Unscrupulous Step 2. They use programmers create a virus program. They hide the virus in a Word document and attach the Word document to an e-mail message. The Internet to send the e-mail message to thousands of users around the world. Step b. Other users do not Step AAA. Some users open the attachment and their computers become infected with the virus. Recognize the name of the sender of the e-mail message. These users do not open the e-mail message. Instead they delete the e-mail message.
These users’ computers are not infected with the virus. How can you protect your system from a macro virus? Set macro security level in applications that allow you to write macros Set security level so that warning displays that document contains macro Macros are instructions saved in an application, such as word processing or spreadsheet program 7 What is an antivirus program? Identifies and removes computer viruses Most also protect against worms and Trojan horses 8 What is a virus signature?
Specific pattern of virus code Also called virus definition Antivirus programs look for virus signatures 9 How does an antivirus program inoculate a Records program file? Information as file size and creation Uses date Attempts to detect if to remove virus tampers any detected with file virus Quarantines infected files that it Keeps file cannot in separate remove area of hard disk 10 What are some tips for preventing virus, worm, and Trojan horse infections?
Never start a computer with removable media inserted If the antivirus program flags an email attachment as infected, delete the attachment immediately Install an antivirus program on all of your computers Check all downloaded programs for or Trojan horses Never open an e-mail attachment unless you are expecting it and it is from a trusted source Install a personal firewall program 11 What are a denial of service attack, back door and spoofing?
A denial of service (DOS) attack is an assault which disrupts computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail A back door is a program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a computer resource Spoofing is a technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network (email spoofing) 12 What is a firewall?
Security system consisting of hardware and/or software that prevents unauthorized intrusion 13 What is a personal firewall? Program that protects personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions Monitors transmissions to and from computer Informs you of attempted intrusion Unauthorized Access and Use How can companies protect against hackers?
Intrusion detection software analyze network traffic, assesses system vulnerabilities, and identifies intrusions and suspicious behavior Access control defines who can access computer and what actions they can take Audit trail records access attempts – successful & unsuccessful attempts 15 What are other ways to protect your personal computer? Disable file and printer sharing on Internet connection 16 What is a user name? Unique combination of characters that identifies user Password is private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to computer 17 How can you make your password more secure?
Longer passwords provide greater security What is a possessed object? Item that you must carry to gain access to computer or facility Often used with numeric password called personal identification number (PIN) 19 What is a biometric device? Authenticates person’s identity using personal characteristic Fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, signature, and iris 20 Hardware Theft and Vandalism What are hardware theft and hardware vandalism?
Hardware theft is act of stealing computer equipment Cables sometimes used to lock equipment Some notebook computers use passwords, possessed objects, and biometrics as security methods For Pads and smart phones, you can password-protect the device Hardware vandalism is act of defacing or destroying computer 21 Software Theft What is software theft? Act of stealing or software, copying software or intentionally erasing programs Software piracy is illegal duplication of copyrighted software What is a license agreement?
Right to use software Single-user license agreement allows user to install software on one computer, make backup copy, and sell software after removing from computer What are some other safeguards against software theft? Product activation allows user to input reduce identification number online or by phone and receive unique installation identification number Business Software Alliance (ABS) promotes better understanding of software piracy problems 24 Information Theft What is encryption?
Safeguards against information theft Process of converting plaintext (readable data) into ciphered (unreadable characters) Encryption key (formula) often uses more than one method To read the data, the recipient must decrypt, or decipher, the data How do Web browsers provide secure data transmission? Many Web browsers use encryption Secure site is Web site that uses encryption o secure data 26 What is a certificate authority (CA)?