Computer Aided Manufacturing
A highly skilled operator Is required even for a simple Job Inconsistency In results Much longer time, depend on knowledge and skill of operator. Very operator. Difficult to manufacture complex products Low productivity Numerically Controlled Machines Same technological capabilities as of conventional machines in terms of machining, but differ in control of machine functions. Elements of NC system Part program Machine control unit (MAC) The machine tool Capabilities of Machine control unit (MAC) of a NC machine: Positioning the tool Turning the spindle ON/OFF Setting cutting speeds/feed rates
Turning coolant ON/OFF Direction and rate of slide motion, spindle rotation, etc. Control system in NC machine: error controller motor Final position Spindle/cutting tool Speed feedback Feedback: position signal Optical Encoder ; Each motion is positioned by rotating motors by a desired amount ; The spindle/ cutting tool is driven by DC/AC motors through reduction gear boxes ; Position of the motor is sensed using an encoder (e. G. Resolution is 3500/revolution) ; Velocity of the motor is measured by a teach-generator Types of NC control systems Pennon-loop Control
Stepper motor is used, having a predefined amount of revolution. Current pulses are send from MIMIC to individual motors. Movement/rotation depends on number of pulses send. Advantages: Position is maintained Just by keeping track of number of revolutions. Can produce a movement of 1/10th of an inch, for a single pulse. Cheap and less complex. Easy to maintain. Drawback: Assumption: Motor movement is precise, I. E. Motor is moving the exact amount depending on the number of pulses. No way to correct errors, because no feedback.
This control is not suitable for large machines requiring greater power because of imitation of stepper motor to generate high torque. Closefisted-loop Control Direct current (DC) motors are used. Can generate high levels of torque. Can be reversed. Unlike stepper motors, it cannot achieve very precise movement. Separate positions sensors are required. Position information is fed back as a signal to the controller. Major advantage: because of feed back and servo motors reversible feature, errors can be corrected, by comparing with target position. Thus formed a closed loop.
Higher accuracy than open loop systems because of feed back. Applications: Larger NC machines because of higher loads. For greater accuracy, any kind of load. Expensive and complex. Z-axis: Always aligned with the spindle that imparts cutting power. This spindle might rotate the work-piece as in a lathe, it might rotate a tool as in a milling machine. It is perpendicular to work-holding surface if there is no such spindle. Positive motion in z axis tends to increase the separation between the work-piece and the tool X axis: Positioning the moving element, parallel to the work-holding surface, horizontal (if possible).
On machines with rotating work-pieces, it is radial and parallel to the cross-slide On machines with rotating tools, 1. If the Z-axis is horizontal, the positive x motion is to the right when looking from the spindle to the work-piece. 2. If the z axis in vertical, the positive x axis is to the right when looking from the spindle to the column On machines with non-rotating work-pieces and non- rotating tools, the axis is parallel to and directed toward the principal cutting direction Y-axis: be in such a direction as to complete a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system Motion control system Work-piece
Point to point Straight cut system Continuous path Tool motion Point to Point angles and Arcs: Continuous path angles and Arcs: Linear path interpolation Incremental path approximation Interpolation using circular or other equations NC Part Programming Part Program is the program required to machine a specific part or component. Require intimate knowledge about the processes. NC part programmer should be a skill operator and good part programmer for maximum utilization of machine capabilities and available resources like Gigs and fixtures, cutting tools, without violating the machine constraints.
Assumed that it is the tool that undergoes the primary motion, for writing NC part program. Absolute positioning mode: Target position of the tool is given relative to the origin point of the program. Incremental positioning mode Target position for the tool is given relative to the current tool position Structure of an NC part program 1. Fixed sequential format: Each statement consists of exactly the same number of words entered in a specified sequence, Each word consists of a fixed number of data characters Characters cannot be omitted and no extra characters can be included
It is essential the same as fixed sequential format The difference is that each word within a statement is preceded by a TAB character The sequence of the words remains significant The spaces should not be used in the actual program. Word address format:: A method of coding machine motion using ANSI format letter system. Ease to use Does not require all the words. Ignores spaces.
Fundamentals of NC Programming: Preparatory function: Necessary operation conditions Axis motion commands: Control the amount of relative motion Feed and speed commands: Control the cutting conditions Identification commands: To identify specific entities in the program, such as cutting tools used Miscellaneous commands: Controls various aspects of the machine’s operation such as turning the spindle on and off and changing tools Preparatory function continue… Canned cycles: Example 1: Example 2: Loading the program Conventional NC: I-in. Wide punched paper tape: for program storage and input to NC machines A binary-based representation code Two standard coding schemes: EIA & ASCII Part program Paper tape Machine Computer NC (CNN) Storage medium Display operational parameters, coordinate sections, etc. Keyboard for data entry and editing the program Computer Memory MAC Distributed Numerical Control (DON) Each CNN machine has its own memory The local machine can run autonomously Central computer plays a supervisory role, monitoring the operations of machines, etc.
Computer-Aided Part Programming: Reduces the manual calculations To prove the program by path simulation, identify errors Set of events can be programmed with fewer commands, leading to shorter programs English-like structure of the programming systems makes it easier for aerogramme to learn Program preparation is simplified by use of English-like commands that are easy to understand and program. It reduces the likelihood of errors in the program. Simulation, tool path generation, etc.
CAD CAD model Select surfaces CAM Generate code Select parameter CLC file APT code Post Processor Standard APT (Automatically programmed tools) language: APT Source file NC Code file APT processor Post processor APT source file: written by user APT processor checks the source file for errors in defined geometry, errors in required tool motions CLC file means cutter location file Post processor converts CLC data into final NC codes. Computer-Aided Part Programming: Post processing Convert the CLC data into m/c tool coordinates.
Check for speed, feed, movement limitations. Develop motion command using M codes. Process machine specific functions. Select acceleration, deceleration, etc. CAD/CAM based Part Programming: Direct use the CAD database for geometric description of parts. Generate tool path information from the geometric model of the part in the CAD database. Post processor is still required. Commercial CAD/CAM systems with NC program generation: CACTI, CDMA, pro/E.
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