computer 9

First-generation computers used vacuum tube technology.
true
First-generation computers were characterized by custom application programs.
true
Assembly language and machine language are the same.
false
Second-generation computers were characterized by their use of operating systems.
true
High-level languages were developed for first-generation computers.
false
By 2000, one of the few remaining minicomputers was the IBM AS/400.
true
Current processor technology requires very large scale integration (VLSI) that packs millions of components on a single chip.
true
Some of the first microcomputers required assembly by the user.
true
The computer industry encompasses those companies that manufacture computers and computer components.
true
All dot-com companies are universally considered part of the IT industry.
false
All major companies in the IT industry are headquartered in Silicon Valley.
false
The end of the dot-com bubble meant a decline in IT sector job openings.
true
It is less expensive to replace software with brand new software than to purchase an upgrade.
false
In the United States, the IT industry is fully regulated by the FCC.
false
Industry observers except the number of telecommuting IT workers to decrease over the next decade.
false
A computer certification will totally prepare a person for a job in the IT industry.
false
In IT, job titles are standardized.
false
Some job hunting experts advise IT job seekers to spend no more than 50% of their total job hunting efforts online.
true
Laws and ethics are really just different words for the same concept.
false
To reduce cell phone radiation, you should use hands-free devices.
true
A tool used for making calculations that was considered essential for engineering and science students through the 1960s is an abacus.
false
In 1947, it was estimated that there would only be a need for 100 electronic computers to satisfy the computing needs of the entire United States.
false
Relocating business processes, such as development and production, to lower- cost locations is called privatizing.
false
The product design stage of the lifecycle of a new hardware product often takes place under wraps.
false
In the maintenance stage of the hardware product life cycle, as supply and demand for product reach an equilibrium, the manufacturer might reduce the price to keep the product attractive to buyers.
true
Sometimes a software publisher releases a beta version of the software to individuals and companies in the general public to expose the software to the widest possible variety of computers and operating environments.
true
Security specialists install and configure antivirus software and firewalls.
true
A computer technician designs and tests new hardware products.
false
Contract workers can be added to company staff when needed, instead of hiring full-time workers who might later be laid off if the company is forced to downsize.
true
Confidentiality is the obligation not to disclose willingly any information that should be kept private.
true
RFID chips embedded in ID badges can be used to keep track of employee’s locations in an office or manufacturing facility.
true
An LCD generates x-rays which are considered harmful.
false
To combat potential health hazards associated with computer use, you should try to take breaks evert 20 minutes.
true
A step-by-step process by which numbers are manipulated is a(n) ____.
algorithm
The type of manual calculator first used in ancient Rome, Greece, India, China, and Japan is called a(n) ____.
abacus
A device consisting of several rods divided into ten squares, each labeled with two numbers, with the rods positioned according to the numbers in the calculation, is a(n) ____.
Napier’s Bones
A calculator that implements instructions autonomously is a(n) ____.
mechanical calculator
The first mass-produced mechanical calculator was the ____.
de Colmar’s Arithmometer
Punched cards were used in ____.
1970s mainframes
The U.S. Census Bureau held a competition to find a way to tabulate the 1890 census. The Hollerith Tabulating Machine won. The company is now known as ____.
IMB
An experimental device that typically must be further developed and perfected before going into production is called a(n) ____.
prototype
The first electronic computer to use vacuum tubes instead of switches was the ____.
ABC
The electronic device used to decode messages encrypted by the Germans was the ____.
COLOSSUS
The first commercially successful digital computer was the ____.
UNIVAC
A vacuum tube can have ____ state(s).
two
Computers characterized by their use of transistors are considered ____ -generation.
second
The birth of the software industry was a result of high-level languages developed for ____-generation computers.
second
Computers characterized by their use of microprocessors are ____-generation.
fourth
The first commercial microcomputer was the ____.
MITS Altair
The first IBM PCs used ____ as an operating system.
PC-DOS
By the mid-1990s, IBM-compatible computer systems accounted for more than ____ percent of all personal computer sales.
90
According to the text, a narrow definition of the term “computer industry” would be those companies that ____.
manufacture computers and computer components
Factors affecting the success of the IT industry include: ____.
population growth & business globalization
The first phase of testing generally carried out by the software publisher’s in-house test team is called ____.
alpha testing
A set of software tests conducted by a team of off-site testers is called ____.
beta testing
Microsoft’s share of the total personal computer operating system market is about ____.
90%
The following are marketing channels for computer hardware and software: ____.
all of the above
____ refers to hardware manufacturers that sell their products directly to consumers.
manufacturer direct
A ____ combines commercially available products with specialty hardware or software.
VAR
Most IT departments are headed by a ____.
chief information officer
A(n) ____ investigates the requirements of a business or organization, its employees, and its customers in order to plan and implement new or improved customer service.
systems analyst
A person who designs, codes, and tests computer programs is a ____.
computer programmer
A person who creates documentation for large programming projects is a ____.
technical writer
Advantages of telecommuting include all the following EXCEPT ____.
data security
All of the following are essential for secure business data transmitted over the Internet EXCEPT ____.
high-speed connections
Careers in computer ____ focus on the design of computer hardware.
engineering
____ degrees focus on applying computers to business problems.
information systems
____ degrees focus on the computer equipment and software used by businesses.
information technology
When sending a resume by email, the resumes should be in ____ format.
all of the above are popular formats
To get maximum exposure for your resume in an online job database, you should focus on ____.
nouns
A hypertext version of your resume is called a ____.
web portfolio
The ____ Act enhances the authority of law enforcement agents to prevent various terrorist acts such as monitoring electronic communication without a warrant.
USA Patriot
The ____ Act makes it a criminal offense to knowingly access a computer without authorization.
Computer Fraud and Abuse
The ____ Act extends telephone wiretap laws by restricting government agents and unauthorized third parties from tapping into data transmissions without a search warrant.
Electronic Communications Privacy
John is interested in advancement opportunities when he graduates. Connie should advise him that it would be best to get at least a(n) ____ degree.
bachelor’s
John is also interested in the application of computers to business processes. If he wants to focus on computer equipment and software used by businesses and organizations, Connie should advise him to major in ____.
information technology
You tell Jimmy that the elements of an effective resume include ____.
it should be easy to read
Susan asks which act she should investigate that makes it illegal to circumvent copy-protection technologies. What do you tell her?
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
____________________ languages, such as COBOL and Fortran, were available for use on second-generation computers and remain in use today.
HIGH-LEVEL
____________________ languages, such as COBOL and Fortran, were available for use on second-generation computers and remain in use today.
INTEGRATED
The first electronic spreadsheet was ____________________.
VISICALC
One of the first Internet-based companies, founded in 1995 to “use the Internet to transform book buying into the fastest, easiest, and most enjoyable shopping experience possible,” was ____________________.
AMAZON
The use of components or labor from outside suppliers is called ____________________.
OUTSOURCING
The sharp rise in the stock value of the dot-com industry is called the dot-com ____________________.
BUBBLE
In the hardware product life cycle, the ____________________ stage involves the addition of a new product to a vendor’s product line and its prominent featuring in advertisements.
INTRODUCTION
Products that are announced but never produced are referred to as ____________________.
VAPORWARE
Computer hardware and software are sold through outlets called marketing ____________________.
CHANNELS
Workers using technology to work from home or an off-site location are ____________________.
TELECOMMUTING
An objective test that verifies one’s level of knowledge about a particular technology or subject is a(n) ____________________ exam.
CERTIFICATION
A(n) ____________________ tool is a software program that performs broad-based Web searches, such as searching more than one job database at a time.
METASEARCH
A term that refers to on-the-job choices and actions that reflect a person’s values is professional ____________________.
ETHICS
The study of safe and efficient working environments is ____________________.
ERGONOMICS
The life cycle of a new computer product is shown in the accompanying figure, in which box A represents ____.
Product Development
The life cycle of a new computer product is shown in the accompanying figure, in which box C represents ____.
Introduction
The accompanying figure represents computer and software marketing channels. In that figure, box A represents ____.
distribution centers
The accompanying figure represents computer and software marketing channels. In that figure, box C represents ____.
mail-order suppliers
The accompanying figure represents a CRT; in this drawing Box A points to the ____.
panel glass
The accompanying figure represents a CRT; in this drawing Box B points to the ____.
phosphor screen
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition whose effects are made worse by keyboard use. The accompanying figure represents a hand. Box A indicates the ____.
median nerve
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition whose effects are made worse by keyboard use. The accompanying figure represents a hand. Box B indicates the ____.
transverse carpal ligament

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