Compare and contrast two models of policy making Essay
Policy Models are general principles in which the Government can take legislative measures and decide how to manage public affairs.
This means that it helps determine which of the various policies achieve the goals and policies uplifted. There are many models that exist to analyze the creation and application of public policy. These models are used to analyze the important aspects of policy, and explain and predict the policies and its consequences. Two examples of such models include the Incremental Model and the Group Model.
The Incremental Model is a model where policies are made by adding small changes gradually that is not changing a problem at a fast rate but slow and consistent. Such a model is preferred since small changes are only done and hence it is less radical and ambitious. This Model allows the adjusted policy to be tested whilst implemented and therefore there is a less chance of having a negative consequence. Therefore the decision making process is a constant negotiation and adjustment meaning there is only a small difference from the old policy.In fact most of the policies are politically beneficial because it doesn’t necessitate any radical change of values but tries to improve the acceptability of public policy.
Although there is little chance of a negative consequence the Incremental Model has its disadvantages. If resources are limited bargaining is unsuccessful meaning if for e. g. the Government decides to enlarge University and there is no extra land, it is not worth negotiating it.
This can therefore make good quantitative information less important and therefore solutions which could reach far are biased.Since in such a Model only small changes are made, decisions are not imaginative since there is no creation of a new policy just adding to the old one. The Group Model is when the political system establishes and enforces compromises between various conflicting areas and policies in society. Public policies result from a system of forces and pressures acting on each other. It usually focuses on the legislature but there is also pressure from interest groups.
In fact Agencies may be taken over by such groups which they are supposed to regulate and this makes it difficult to distinguish whether such policies are beneficial to the general public or beneficial to the groups which are regulated. Though this is what makes up politics, the interaction between groups made up of individuals with the same goal and same common interests who together enforce their demand on Government. In politics, individuals are only important when acting part or behalf of a group since a group is the only bridge between the individual and the Government.When the Group Model is used the task of the Government is to establish the rules of the game, arrange compromises and balance interests, apply the compromises in public policy and impose such compromises. For such an impact to be made and enforce Government to take such a decision numbers in a group must be high, there must be good leadership and organisational strength so impact would be greater.
Unlike the Incremental Model the Group Model is a creation of a group and if a change is made it would be quite radical since the Government is imposed by a number of individuals.An example would be the group of Trade Unions when for example many individuals are seeking for a higher wage and if such a change is made then the increase in wage wouldn’t be increased slowly, but at once. Another difference is that the policies changed in an Incremental Model is usually done by the decision of the Government and not brought forward by interest groups since only small changes to the previous policy would be applied. Today a policy which is brought up regularly is the decision of divorce in Malta.
Divorce in Malta is not part of our legal system but only legal separation by consensual proceeding meaning that both parties reach an agreement or contentious proceeding meaning that no agreement has been reached by the two parties and therefore decided by the family court. The Government has the responsibility to protect families when marriages fail. It ensures through policies and structures that families and marriages are protected and supported and when they fail that the legal process of coping is efficient and humane.Since today marital breakdown is on the increase, such a problem has to be dealt with and in the majority of cases legal separation is given.
Though this is not always adequate and not in the wider interest of the public. Although individuals favour divorce, this does not mean that they see divorce as good but only because they would like such legislative measures to be available. Allowing divorce would not enforce religious believers to consider such an action and go against their beliefs but neither absenting other individuals to such an action.This is where the group model comes in. The issue of divorce can be considered as an example of the group model since the Government has to collaborate with both those agreeing and not agreeing to divorce. A major group which absolutely disagrees with divorce is the Church.
The Church cannot accept the dissolution of marriage for doctrinal reasons. Therefore the State must decide what decision is the best for the whole of society by balancing between human rights and the beliefs of individuals and the interest of a community and of society as a whole.It is important that the right of an individual to be religious based and a right of an individual who is not religiously based to be maintained distinctively. Therefore this shows that a fair democracy should respect the religious beliefs and but laws should not be dictated by such beliefs. Therefore there is a need of change. The State has to consider the society as a whole and not be influenced by the Church or by religious beliefs.
If the major of society agrees with divorce, the State should take legislative action and introduce such a policy to Malta. Therefore such a change would be new and hence the Group Model is taken into action.