(Community Health Nursing) Chapter 6: Community Assessment

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Defining the Community
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Aggregate of people ===The “who” ===Share personal characteristics and risks Location in space and time ===The “where” and “when” ===Physical location frequently delineated by boundaries and influenced by the passage of time Social system ===The “why” and “how” ===Interrelationships of aggregates fulfilling community functions
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Community Assessment Parameters
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Geography Public services Population Transportation Environment Community development or planning Industry Community services Education Health manpower Recreations Health statistics Religion Communication Social problems Disaster programs Political organization Health professional organizations
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What should you know about Healthy Communities?
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A movement to help community members bring about positive health changes Interconnectedness between people and the public and private sectors is essential to make changes. Each community has its unique perspective.
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Assessing the Community
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Windshield survey ===Gain an understanding of environmental layout ===Locate possible areas of environmental concern through “sight, sense, and sound” ===Gives nurse an opportunity to observe people and their role in the community
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What else can you see through Windshield Survey
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Community vitality Indicators of social and economic conditions Health resources Environmental conditions related to health Social functioning Attitudes toward health and health care
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What types of data can you use for Assessing the Community
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Sources of data: Census data and other census reports Vital statistics NCHS survey data Local, regional, and state government reports Locally generated data collection Analysis of demographic information provides descriptive information about the population
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What should you know about needs assessment
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Used to understand the community’s perspective Interview key community informants Use community forums, focus groups, or surveys 12 Steps in a Needs Assessment
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Steps in the Needs Assessment Process
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1:Identify aggregate for assessment 2:Engage the community in planning the assessment 3:Identify required information 4:Select method of data gathering 5:Develop questionnaires or interview questions 6:Develop procedures for data collection 7:Train data collectors 8:Arrange for a sample representative of the aggregate 9:Conduct needs assessment 10:Tabulate and analyze data 11:Identify needs suggested by data 12:Develop an action plan
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The nursing process can be applied to the community as a client.
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Needs assessment Diagnosing health problems (actual and potential) Planning Intervention Evaluation
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Epidemiological Studies Used Throughout the Nursing Process
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Support planning by establishing effectiveness of certain interventions in specific aggregates Construct benchmarks to gauge achievement of program objectives Compare data with other rates Identify objectives of successful programs Document effectiveness with epidemiological data

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