Community Analysis Of Homeless Families Sociology Essay Essay
This paper analyzes the societal issues environing stateless households and describes the extent of the job within the U. S. community, while comparing the U.S. community to other communities in other parts of the planetary system. Causes listed in this paper include unemployment, mental unwellness, drug or intoxicant maltreatment, and deficiency of low-cost lodging. Three theoretical theoretical accounts guide the analysis: societal systems theory, functionalist theory and struggle theory. The informations come from statistics of stateless households in the U.S. and planetary communities. These consequences deliver some grounds for current accounts for stateless passages, and they propose likely avenues for extra research on the kineticss of homelessness.
Macro Community Analysis
Homelessness is a important concern within the U. S. and planetary community. This state of affairs arises when its persons are poverty stricken and do non hold regular entree to low-cost lodging. In the U. S. in the early 1980s, households with immature kids became one of the fastest turning sections of the stateless population and now consist of 34 % of the homeless population, which includes 23 % kids and 11 % grownups ( Burt et al. , 1999 ) . The issues of homelessness have ever been a job around the universe, even though it varies greatly, it has been considered to be one of the oldest societal quandary in the universe. Any twenty-four hours, no less than 800,000 persons are homeless in the U.S. , including about 200,000 stateless households. Most stateless households have incomes below 50 % of the federal poorness degree that makes it about impossible for them to happen rental belongings within their agencies. To do affairs worse, every bit many as 70 % of stateless people struggle with serious wellness jobs, mental and physical disablements, and/or substance maltreatment jobs ( Burt, 2001 ) . Countries have different ways of describing homelessness, dissimilar steps with which to specify homelessness. Some states have no policy sing this status at all and for that ground are unable to describe on the statistics.
Causes and Effectss of Homelessness
As mentioned, homeless is besides a planetary issue and non a job particular to the U.S. It is
estimated to be around 3 million homeless persons in 15 states of the European Union.
Philip Alston, Chairperson of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights since
1991 states that “ on any given dark, three quarters of a million people in the United States are
homeless ; in Toronto, Canada ‘s largest metropolis, 6,500 people stayed in exigency shelters on a
typical dark in late 1997, a two-thirds addition in merely one twelvemonth ” ( Unicef, 1998 ) .
Furthermore, maltreatment and assault appear to be soundless features of homelessness. Surveies have often found, in the histories of both persons and households who are stateless, high rates of sexual and physical maltreatment in childhood, frequent Foster attention and other out of-home arrangements, and a fluctuation of other household breaks. Those that are ever acquiring assaulted by their households might take to run off and seek shelter in the streets than consent to a life of daily maltreatment from whippings and molestation. The most important grounds why people become homeless may be due to the unavailability of low-cost lodging for low income people. Studies show that people are likely to go stateless out of ineluctable state of affairss. There are people who do work but they earn excessively small to pay for rent, electric, gas, and other lodging public-service corporations and disbursals. If a individual becomes unemployed, they will be unable to pay for anything at all.
Homeless Families Demographics
Although homelessness is a hard figure to mensurate, one manner to analyse the extent of the job is through demographics. Harmonizing to The National Center on Family Homelessness ( 2008 ) , the typical sheltered stateless household is comprised of a female parent in her late mid-twentiess with two kids.
Eighty-four per centum of households sing homelessness are female-headed. This is due to figure of factors:
Most single-parent households are female-headed ( 71 % ) . Single-parent households are among the poorest in the state and as such, are highly vulnerable to homelessness
Several household shelters do non take work forces into their plans, doing households to divide when they become stateless
Families of colour are overrepresented in the stateless population. Nationally:
Forty-three per centum are Afro-american
Fifteen per centum are Latino
Thirty-eight per centum are White, non-Hispanic
Three per centum are Native American
Families sing homelessness often have limited instruction:
Fifty-three per centum of homeless female parents do non hold a high school sheepskin
Twenty-nine per centum of grownups in stateless households are working
Forty-two per centum of kids in homeless households are under age six ( The National Center on Family Homelessness, 2008 ) .
The deficiency of sensible lodging has led to high rent payments for households that already struggle to pay their life disbursals. These issues force many households to go stateless each twenty-four hours. A solution would be to take down the cost of lodging, supply more support for those that are in demand, and for the authorities to acknowledge that homelessness is a big graduated table job.
Application of Theory
Social Systems Theory
Social inequality is shown all over the universe stemming from state of affairss of race, gender, and age. An person ‘s societal environment includes all state of affairss a individual comes into contact with on a daily footing such as the person ‘s place, occupation, and income degree, and the societal regulations that govern them. Person-in-environment refers to interaction between an person and the multiple systems environing that single, and version refers to one ‘s capableness to alter in order to set to new state of affairss. In order to digest, an single must be able to work efficaciously within their societal environments ( Kirst-Ashman & A ; Hull, 2002 ) .
The of import factor behind the societal choice theoretical account is that homelessness signifies the concluding point in a procedure characterized by the slow decrease of an person ‘s societal and economic resources. As an person ‘s substance usage escalates, the individual ‘s income is finally depleted by their dearly-won dependence. The person is no longer able to pay their rental and ends up forced from of their place ( Bessant et al. , 2002 ) , or their family connexions end, which leads to the individual no longer shacking in a abode ( Coumans & A ; Spreen, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Fountain and Howes, 63 per centum of stateless individuals in Britain identified intoxicant and drug ingestion as their cause for being homeless. The research workers decided that ”drug usage is traditionally seen as one of the major paths into homelessness, and this was borne out by our study ” ( Fountain & A ; Howes, 2002, p. 10 ) . This compares to the above U.S. per centums that have reported drug and intoxicant maltreatment as one of the causes of homelessness.
Homelessness can be explained by functionalism, a theory developed by Durkheim. Poverty is best understood from a assorted position affecting struggle, by Karl Marx and functionalist, by Emile Durkheim. Since poorness surely plays a function in a homelessness community, this theory surely applies. In my sentiment, functionalist theory explains that our state does really assist those in demand but on occasion we can be unsuccessful. This theory continues to remind us to populate practically and tells us that the societal order does basically work ( Meyerhoff 2006 ) .
Unfortunately, at this clip, scientific surveies of household homelessness have been unable to instantaneously reflect all of these likely hazard factors. Most of the research can be divided into those surveies that present household homelessness as the merchandise of separate faces or of community conditions, without analyzing both factors together ( Shlay & A ; Rossi, 1992 ) .
Conflict theory, which is important to the analysis of the homeless status, is the belief that the agencies of mental capableness and mental accomplishment plays a function in the finding of what involvements will be articulated efficaciously. Conflict theory surveies the macro degree of our society, its constructions and organisations. While functionalists dispute that society is held together norms, values, and a common morality, struggle theoreticians consider how society is held together by power and coercion for the advantage of those in power ( Ritzer, 2000 ) .
Though persons and groups appreciating great wealth, prestigiousness, and power have the resources needed to enforce their values on others with fewer resources, Max Weber, a theoretician viewed a scope of category divisions in society as normal, inevitable, and acceptable, as do many modern-day struggle theoreticians ( Curran & A ; Renzetti, 2001 ) . Weber ‘s theory separated the category of persons into middle class and labor. Bourgeoisie are those capitalist who possess the agencies of production while the labor is deemed as the on the job category ; they are the 1s who sell their ain labour power. These groupings show how people are classified harmonizing to their position in life. It fundamentally defines the society ‘s province of inequality that is stabilized and reproduced through cultural political orientation ( Meyerhoff 2006 ) .
Social Ill within Turley Homelessness
Poverty and inequality continues to afflict many occupants in Turley, Oklahoma. The best theory that explains the societal ailment in Turley, Oklahoma, is conflict theory. One of the struggles impacting Turley occupants is the deficiency of transit and close wellness attention installations. Without entree to transit, occupants can non acquire to work or to physicians or infirmaries easy. Weber ‘s theory separated the category of persons into middle class the “ rich persons ” , and the “ have-nots ” were called labor. It would be ideal if Marx ‘s thought of building a basically “ equal ” society where there is no competition for wealth and power ( Meyerhoff, 2006 ) . It is known that several of Turley occupants have less than other communities. One of the societal ailments within the Turley community is the many houses that are abandoned, boarded up, falling down or even burned-out by hooliganism, which consequences in minimum to no lodging for Turley occupants. Besides, from low income or unemployment, this may be caused by deficiency of transit. This can ensue in persons going down and utilizing drugs or intoxicant as a header mechanism. Prolonged usage of drugs or intoxicant may ensue in a mental upset. Peoples who have complicated life issues related to mental unwellness and of drug or intoxicant usage are the most common people who tend to be homeless. An sentiment has been shared that there is a connexion between homelessness and substance maltreatment, nevertheless, this has been problematic ( Kemp, Neale, & A ; Robertson, 2006 ; Mallett, Rosenthal, & A ; Keys, 2005 ; Neale, 2001 ; Snow & A ; Anderson, 1993 ) .
Many people in Turley, Oklahoma are stateless due to miss of low-cost lodging and deficiency of entree to wellness attention installations, both of which makes life worse for occupants with mental unwellness or substance maltreatment jobs. Severe mental unwellnesss may be caused from substance maltreatment and affect people ‘s ability to transport out critical phases of mundane life, such as retaining a occupation, family direction or even self-care. Mental unwellnesss may besides forestall people from organizing and keeping stable relationships or do them to misinterpret aid from others ‘ and respond in an angry mode. This frequently consequences in forcing off household, friends and health professionals who may be the force maintaining that individual from going homeless. There have been a few studies that specified substance maltreatment as an brush for homelessness but some persons have shown homelessness ”induces drug usage ” ( Neale, 2001, p. 354 ) .
In drumhead, when comparing the U. S. to other planetary communities, the causes of homelessness were similar, with poorness being the taking cause. To efficaciously turn to homelessness, communities need a clear apprehension of the job and recognize that it could impact anyone at any given clip. Homelessness continues to be an increasing job and requires societal action to get the better of the unfairness that those people suffer. A alteration can be made by edifice or offering low-cost lodging units to people with low or really minimum income, every bit good as screening households from the maltreatment they may acquire exposed to and seeking to assist steer them in the right way. Finally, through assisting communities with plans that assist addicted persons to get the better of their dependence every bit good as people with mental unwellness by supplying low-cost wellness attention plans, the homeless have an chance to lift above their current state of affairs.
As a Child Welfare Supervisor, I selected this peculiar societal justness issue because several of the kids that come into OKDHS detention will age out of the system without a lasting place or household, which consequences in most of them going homeless ; this was learned in our Child Welfare Trainings. I wanted to larn more about this on-going job and experience it is really of import that we help stateless people obtain a better life.