Communications Ch 6

Non-verbal Communication
– Messages expressed by nonlinguistic means
– Everything has communication value- even if you have no affect
– Conveys emotion that we may be unwilling or unable to express or ones we may not be aware of
Communication Value
-There is more being communicated than context. In your eye contact, pitch, body language, smiling.
-It is impossible for us to stop communicating
Culture-bound (Learning to Smile)
-Different cultures have different nonverbal languages that can have opposing meanings
Male and Female Differences: Culture vs. Biology
-Research shows that women smile more, use more facial expression,use more head,hand and arm gestures, touch others more, stand closer to others, are more vocally expressive, make more eye contact
Relational
Non-verbal are more relational (rather than content) and they are kinds of identity messages
E-mail Messages & Emotions
Emojis show the non-verbal dimensions of a message.
As technology advances there will be more and more ways for us to express the non-verbals.
Functions of Non-verbal Communication
Non-verbal has more than one meaning.
-It helps us with identity management
-Define the kids of relationships we want to have with others
-Convey emotions
Repeating
-Non-verbaly repeating what you stated verbally.
-We do this because people remember comments accompanied by gestures more than those made with words alone
Substituting
Non-verbal expressions or gestures that can be useful when communicators are reluctant to express their feelings
Complementing
Non-verbal behavior that matches the thoughts and emotions the communicator is expressing linguistically.
Accenting
-Using non-verbal devices to emphasize oral messages.
-Accenting certain words with your voice is another way to add nonverbal emphasis.
Regulating, Turn-Taking Cues
-Nonverbal behaviors can help regulate by influencing the flow of verbal communication.
-Parties in conversation send and receive turn-taking cues through the way they use their voice.
-We also regulate conversation nonverbally by nodding, looking away, or moving toward an exit.
Contradicting/Mixed Message
-People often send contradicting verbal and nonverbal messages
-In situations like these we tend to believe the nonverbal messages over the verbal messages
-Although some of the ways people contradict themselves are subtle, mixed messages have a strong impact
Deception/Leakage
-Inadvertent signals of deception (leakage) can come through a variety of nonverbal channels such as Facial expressions, Pupil dilation, Voice, and Pitch
Non-Verbal Communication and Ambiguity
-Nonverbal messages are open to multiple interpretation
Kinesics
body position and motion
Body Orientation
the degree to which we face toward or away from someone with our body, feet and head
Posture
-Another way of nonverbal communication that can tell how people feel about themselves and about one another
Gestures (illustrators, emblems, adaptors)
-Movements of the hands and arms are important types of nonverbal communication
-Illustrators are the most common form of gestures and are movements that accompany speech but don’t stand on their own
Face/Eyes
-The most noticed parts of the body but their verbal messages aren’t the easiest to read
-It’s almost impossible to compile a dictionary of facial expressions
Voice/Paralanguage
-The voice is another channel of nonverbal communication.
-Paralanguage describes nonverbal vocal messages
Touch
-The study of touching is called Haptics
Physical Attractiveness
-People who are physically attractive have more influence over others.
-Once we get to know more about people we begin to perceive them as better looking
Clothing
-A way of communicating nonverbally
-Conveys at least ten types of messages such as Economic Background, Economic level, Educational Background, Educational Level, Level of Sophistication, Level of Success, Moral Character, Social Background, Social Position, Trustworthiness
Proxemics
-The study of the way people and animals use space
-Distance between two people can tell how they feel about each other
Territoriality
-Your stationary space that is considered an extension of our physical being
-This can be your room at home or it can be a specific seat that you choose in class
Physical Environment
-Even spaces send nonverbal messages that could be saying “don’t touch anything” or “make yourself comfortable”
Time/Chronemics
-Chronemics is used to describe the study of how humans use and structure time.
Personal Space
0-18in- intimate space
18in-4ft- personal space
12ft-beyond-public