Cognitive Psychology Study Guide

Cognitive psychology
The empirical study of the mental process and the mental abilities used by a person

Six mental processes
– human intelligence
– language
– thinking and problem-solving
– memory
– attention
– perception

Memory process
– encoding
– storage/consolidation
– retrieval/remodification

Neurocognitive memory
Neural connections throughout the brain link to one another to create specific memories
– Long term potentiation (LTP)
– neurons learn to fire together and get better at it creating a memory
– hippo: creates + recalls
– amygd: consolidates emotional memories

Levels of processing effect
Incoming information can be processed at different levels of attention

structural encoding
Physical structures of the words (Capital letters)

phonemic encoding
Sounds of the words (rhymes)

semantic encoding
Deeper meaning of the words (representation)

Leads to a fragile memory and susceptible to rapid decay

Results in longer lasting memory codes

Multi-store memory (Atkinson and Shiffren model)
– STM is limited to the magic number 7
– Chungking reduce the information into STM
– rehearsal transfers STM to LTM

Large capacity; brief retention of images

Limited capacity- processing info

Unlimited capacity; organized info

maintenance rehearsal
The process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about the info just learned

elaborative rehearsal
Connecting new info with previously stored already existing associative structures

Serial position effect
Refers to the finding that recall accuracy varies as a function of an items position within a study list (U function)

Working memory
A system which actively holds information in the mind to do verbal and nonverbal tasks such as reasoning and comprehension, and to make it available for further information processing.

phonological loop
Deals with sound information (language)

visio spatial sketchpad
Hold information about what we see (Visual semantics)

Central executive
Flexible system responsible for the control and regulation of cognitive processes

episodic buffer
Limited capacity storage for long-term memory processing and dedicated to linking info across domains to form integrated units of visual spatial and verbal information (short-term episodic memory)

Reconstructive memory (schema)
Long-term memory = a loose network of parts that are reconstructed

Multi memory types
Memories are classified based on the type of information

explicit memory
Conscious memory

Semantic memory
General knowledge (frontal lobe)

episodic memory
Personal experience (hippocampus + temporal lobe)

implicit memory
Unconscious memory

Memory of learned skills (cerebellum)

Habit based

Landscape map of our body + environmental navigation

Flashbulb memories
Highly detailed snapshot of the moment due the emotional mood
– Amygdala: modulates the encoding, storage, and retrieval and of episodic memory
– susceptible to decay

Memory retrieval recall
Info from your own memory (essay)

Memory retrieval recognition
Info identified from possible targets (multiple-choice)

Repetition priming
Refers to the fact that it is easier to recognize a face or a word if you have recently seen that same phrase or word

Somatic priming
Refers to the fact that it is easier to recognize someone or a word they have just seen or a word closely associated

Serial recall
Refers to our ability to recall items or events in the order which they occured

Encoding specificity
Similarities exist between the process of memory creation and the recall of that memory

State dependent theory
Learning and recalling are based upon the physical logical and mental state of the organism

Mood congruent memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
– depressed = sad memory

Context effects
You can recall more when The environments are simmered in both the learning and recall phases

Forgetting curve
Forgetting occurs in a systematic manner, beginning rapidly been leveling off
– To lose half of the information learned from the list would take 1 day

Spacing effect
People more easily remember or learn info when they are studied in a few times over a long period of time rather study repeatedly in a short period of time (don’t cram)

Interference theory retroactive
RN new blocks old

Interference very proactive
PO old blocks new

Decay theory
A memory fades due to time and unimportance of the memory

Motivated forgetting

Tip of the tongue
The failure to recall A memory due to missing stimuli or cues that were present at the time the memory was encoded

No new memories

No old memories

Full suffocation of memory in which gaps are filled in by fabrications that the individual except as reality
– EX: Lost in the mall technique

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