Clinical Psychology Chapter 11

Is a method of inducing changes in a person’s behavior, thoughts, or feelings.
Psychological intervention
A control group whose members meet regularly with clinician but receive no active treatment
Attention only control group
A release of emotions
catharsis
A set features that characterize many therapy orientations and that may be that source of the positive changes effected by psychological treatment
common factors
In psychology research, that group that does not receive the treatment under investigation
Control group
The changeability of a condition or behavior
Depth of problem
The size of the treatment effect
effect size
Studies that emphasize external validity and the representativeness of the treatment that is administered. A treatment is considered effective to the extent that clients report clinically significant benefit from the treatment
Effectiveness studies
Studies that place a premium on internal validity by controlling the type of clients in the study, by standardizing the treatment, and by randomly assigning patients to treatment or no treatment groups. A treatment considered efficacious to the extent that the average person is reviewing the treatment in clinical trails is demonstrated to be significantly less dysfunctional than the average person not receiving any treatment
Efficacy studies
Those interventions or techniques that have produced significant change in clients and patients in controlled trails
evidence based treatments
Treatments for various psychological conditions that have been shown through carful empirical study to be either well established or probably efficacious
empirically supported treatments
The therapist demonstration of competence
expert role
In context of psychotherapy, the achievement of understanding the nature and origins of one’s problems
Insight
Treatments informed by a number of sources,including scientific evidence about the intervention, clinical expertise,and patients needs and preferences.
Evidence based pracitce
In the context of psychotherapy, the therapist conceptualization of the meaning behind the patient experiences or behaviors
Interpretation
Psychotherapeutic treatment that is presented and described in a standardized, manual format (outlining the rationals, goals, and techniques that correspond to each phase of the treatment)
manualized treatment
The acquisition of high level of knowledge and skill. One goal of psychotherapy may be for the patient to develop competence mastery in a particular area
Mastery
A method of research in which one compiles all studies reverent to stop or question and combines the results statically
meta analysis
Factors that are not specific to any therapy orientation yet contribute to a positive treatment outcome (the expectation that one will improve)
non specific factors
In psychotherapy research, indicators of patient functioning following treatment used to gauge the treatment effectiveness
outcome measures
Individual without advanced education who have been trained to assist professional mental health workers
paraprofessionals
How well a patient is getting along across a number of domain
patient functioning
A method of inducing changes in a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings
psychological intervention
A series of stages that represent a given client readiness for change in psychotherapy. These include precomtemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination
Stages of change
The relationship between therapist and patient. The forging of a strong therapeutic alliance is believed to be the primary importance for therapeutic change
Therapeutic alliance
In psychotherapy research, the group that receives the treatment under investigation
Treatment group
A control group who members receive treatment only after the study is completed
waiting list control group
Is informed by information about evidence based treatments, a clinician own expertise, and a patients own characterics, values, and preference
Empirically based practice.
What are some of the common support factors listed? (Lambert and Ogles 2004)
Catharsis, Identification with therapist, Mitigation of isolation, positive relationship, reassurance, release of tension, structure, therapeutic alliance, therapist/client active participation, therapist expertness, therapist warmth, respect, empathy,acceptance, trust.
What are some of the learning factors that are listed? (Lambert and Ogles 2004)
Advice, insight, feedback, rationale, cognitive learning, changing expectation for personal effectiveness, assimilation of problematic experiences,
What are some of the action factors that are listed?
Taking risks, cognitive mastery, modeling, practice, reality testing, success experience, working through, encouragement of facing fears
What is the course of Clinical intervention?
initial contact, assessment, the goals of treatment, implementing treatment, termination
What is the stages of change?
pre contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination
What are some of the common but unfounded assumptions about the relationship between patient and therapist variables and psychotherapeutic outcome?
Older patients have worse outcomes, Only highly motivated patients achieve good outcome, women patients better outcome, ethnic minority patients consistently achieve worse outcomes, patients of high socioeconomic stats achieve better outcome, older therapist produce better outcomes, Women therapist produce better outcomes, therapist matcher with therapist according to their ethicinity produce between outcomes, therapist who have undergone their own personal therapy produce better outcomes, more experience therapist produce between outcomes
Frank 1979
Several forms of psychotherapy are somewhat more efficacious than unplanned or informal help
One form of therapy has typically not been shown to be more efficacious than another for all conditions
Clients who shown initial improvement tend to maintain it.
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