Classification and Taxonomy

What is taxonomy?
The study of describing and naming organisms

Who invented modern taxonomy and when?
Carlos Linneaus in the 1750s

What are the 2 parts of a scientific name?
Genus and species

What are the 7 levels of classification in order?
Kindgom phylum class order family genus species

What are above Kingdoms and how many are there?
Domains and theres 3 of them

What are the 6 Kingdoms? (for now)
Archaebactera eubacteria animals plants fungi and protists

Why have scientific names?
– more specific
-stays the same in different languages
– gives more information on the organism
– you can see connections w/ the name

Give details on what protists are.
– eukaryotes, but not fungi, animal, or plant
– microscopic up to giant kelp
– heterotrophic (hetero is to eat) or autotrophic (auto is to use the sun)
– most live in water
– algae does photosynthesis
– ex. slime mold and malaria

Give details on what fungi are.
– a wide variety of different organisms
– decompose dead or living tissues (ex. trees)
– break down nutrients outside their bodies and then absorb them
– grow best in warm, humid areas
– can be multi or single cellular
– 4 main types of fungi

What are the 4 main types of fungi and give details on them.
Zygote Fungi
– 600 species
– fuzzy black bread mold
Club Fungi
-mushrooms and spores are produced inside the cap
Sae Fungi
– 60,000 species
– includes molds, truffles, and yeasts for making bread
Imperfect Fungi
– not any of the others
– includes molds, penicillin, athlete’s foot, and blue cheese

Explain what lichen are
Fungus with algae. The algae gets energy through photosynthesis. The algae gets a place to live in exchange for giving the fungus food

Give details on the Kingdom of Animalia
– body symmetry
– asymmetrical: sponges
– they eat, are mobile, are multicellular, and include 2 sets of chromosomes

What is the definition of classification?
the division of organisms into groups, or classes, based on specific characteristics

Explain the different ways in which plants, fungi, and animals obtain nutrients
– plants= photosynthesis
– fungi= absorbs nutrients from surrounding dead or living tissue (ex. trees)
– animals= eats it

Why are protists placed in their own kingdoms?
they are the organisms that dont fit in other kingdoms

How are bacteria similar to fungi? How are fungi similar to animals?
– bacteria~fungi= they get nutrients by breaking down surrounding substances
– fungi~animals= they are eukayrotic organisms and are multicellular

What is the definition of animalia?
A kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and quickly respond to their environment

What is the definition of plantae?
A kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that are usually green, have cell walls made of cellulose, cannot move around, and use the sun’s energy to make sugar by photosynthesis

What is the definition of fungi?
A kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients

What is the definition of eubacteria?
A kingdom that contains all prokearyotes except archaebacteria

What is the definition of protista?
A kingdom of mosly one-celled eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi

What is the definition of archaebacteria?
A kingdom made up of bacteria that live in extreme environments

How does a dichotomous key help scientists identify organisms?
It lists pairs of descriptive statements that can help nattor the scientists’ searches for what organism they are observing

What is a dichotomous key?
An aid that is used to identify organisms and that consists of the answers to a series of questions

Why do biological classification schemes change?
New evidence and more kinds of organisms are discovered

What are 3 questions that classifying organisms can help answer?
– how many known species are there?
– what are the defining characteristics of each species?
– what are the relationships between these species?