Civics Mid-Term Exam Study Guide

Functions of Government
Keep Order, Provide Security, Provide Services, Guide the Community

Principles of American Democracy
Rule of Law, Limited Government, Consent of the Governed, Individual Rights, Representative Governement

Authoritarian Government
Power is held by an individual or group not accountable to the people.

Types of Authoritarian Governement
Absolute Monarchy, Dictatorship, Totalitarianism

What is Totalitarianism?
Government in which the government’s control extends to most all aspects of people’s lives.

What is a Republic?
A system of limited government in which the people are the ultimate source of governmental power.

Representative Democracy
The citizens choose a smaller group to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf.

Constitutional Monarchy
Another kind of democracy. A government with a hereditary ruler (king or queen) who inherits the power. Modern constitutional monarchies mean that the king or queen is a head of state only, while an elected government has the real power.

Direct Democracy
All of the citizens meet to debate government matters. Because of large populations, this type of government is not practical today.

Legal Aliens
A citizen of a foreign country who is in the United States legally.

Illegal Aliens
A citizen of a foreign country who is in the United States illegally.

Naturalization Process
The steps you must complete to become a US citizen.

Steps to Naturalization
Sign a statement of intent, Live in the US for 5 years, Interview, Pass a citizenship exam, Oath of Allegiance

Citizenship
One can become a US Citizen in two ways: By birth, or by the legal process of naturalization.

Magna Carta
This 1215 document protected the nobles’ privileges and control and granted certain rights to all landholders. Guaranteed that no one would be above the law, not even the queen.

Parliament
The lawmaking body of England.

Common Law
The system of law that looks to previous court decisions rather than regulations written by lawmakers.

Social Contract
An agreement among the people in a society. They agreem to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights.

Town Meetings
A gathering of local citizens to discuss and possibly vote on important issues.

Mercantilism
The theory that a country’s power depends on its wealth. A nation should sell more goods than it buys.

The Tea Act
Gave the British East India Company the right to sell tea to the Colonies without paying the usual taxes, meaning that its tea was cheaper than that of colonial merchants.

Civil War Amendments
The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were important to the Civil Rights Movement. The Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery in the United States. The Fourteenth Amendment allowed Blacks to have the same rights as Whites. The Fifteenth Amendment allowed Blacks to vote

Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the constitution

The First Amendment
Rights to Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition

Due Process
Must follow proper legal rules for each and every person.

Rights of the Accused Amendments
Fifth Amendment (Trial by Jury, Double Jeopardy, No Self-Incrimination, Due Process), Sixth Amendment (Know your rights, Speedy Trial, Entitled to a lawyer)

Civil War Amendments
The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were important to the Civil Rights Movement. The Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery in the United States. The Fourteenth Amendment allowed Blacks to have the same rights as Whites. The Fifteenth Amendment allowed Blacks to vote.

Electoral College
System that allows voters to vote for electors, who would then cast their votes for candidates, a system described in Article II, section 1 of the Constitution.

Cabinet Secretaries
Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Treasury, Attorney General, Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Secretary of Transportation, Secretary of Education, Secretary of Housing & Urban Development, Secretary of Homeland Security, Secretary of Energy

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