(There are 3 elements)
1. We imagine how we appear to those around us. Example, we may think that others persceive us as witty or dull.
2. We interpret others’ reactions.= We come to conclustions about how others evaluate us. Do they like us for being witty? Do they dislike us for being dull.
3. We develop a self concept.= How we interpret others’ reactions to us frames our feelings and ideas about ourselves. a favorable reflection in this social mirror leads to a positive self-concept; a negative reflection leads to a negative self-concept.
We do this in three stages:
Stage 1: Imitation- Childgen under the age of 3. No sence of self, They imitate others.
Stage 2: Play- Ages 3-6 Play “pretend” others (Princess, Spiderman, Etc.)
Stage 3: Team Games- After about age 6 or 7, team games (“orginized Play”) Learn to take multiple roles.
C. Concrete Operations
D. Formal Operations
B. Preoperational Stage- (age 2-7)- We develop the ability to use symbols. We do not yet understand common concepts such as size, speed, or causation. Although we are learning to count, we do not really understand what numbers mean.
C. Concrete Operational Stage- (Ages 7-12)- Our reasoning abilities are more developed but remain concrete. We understand nubers, size, causation, and speed, and we are able to take the role of the other. we can even play games.
D. Formal Operational Stage (12 and after)- We now are capable of absrtact thinking. We can talk about concepts, come to conclutions based on general principles, and use rules to solve problems. During this stage, we are likely to become young philosophers.
I. He observed these stages of development in humans around the world and emphasized orderly cognitive development which was greatly influence by biologucal maturation.
1. Id- Freuds term for our inborn basic drives. Like cries for hunger pains.
2. Ego- Freuds term for a balancing force between the id and demands of society.
3. Superego- Freuds term for conscience; the internalized norms and values of our society.
Sociologis appreciated Freud’s emphasis on socialization. Sociologist, however object to the view that inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary reasons for human behavior.
1. Amoral Stage- Children start her their is no roght or wrong just personal needs.
2. Preconventional Stage- age 7-10 they have learned rules, and they follow them to stay out of trouble.
3. Conventional Stage- At age 10, During this period, morality means following the norms and values they have learned.
4. Postconventional Stage- Which Kohlberg says most people don’t reach, individuals reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong and judge people’s behavior according to these principles.
Gilligan concluded that weman are more likely to evaluate morality in terms of personal relationships. Men in contrast tend to think more along the lines of abstract principles that define right and wrong.