Chp 3 Study Guide Part 1.

Heredity-The passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.

The Social Environment, contact with others.

Feral Children
Children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans.

“The Wild Boy of Aveyron”
In 1798 a child was found in the forests of Aveyron, France. “The wild boy of Aveyron”. Fench scientist took the child to a laboratory and studied him. This child gave no identification of being cold. The boy would growl when he saw a small animal, pounce on it, and devour it uncooked.

“Institutionalized Children” studied by H.M. Skeels and H.B. Dye
In the 1930’s H.M. Skeels and H.B. Dye did an expirement on institutional children, because children reared in orphanages tend to have low IQs. They selected 13 infants who were mentally slow and no one wanted to adopt them, and placed them in an institution for mentally retarded women. The weman enjoyed caring for the infants and giving them attention. They left a control group of twelve at the orphanage were they recieved very little attention. These 12 were somewhat higher in intelligence. 2 1/2 years later, Skeels and Dye tested all the children’s intelligence. Those cared for by the women in the institution gained an average of 28 IQ points while those who remained in the orphanage lost 30 points.

Could there be abstract thought or culture shared with other people without language?
No, If children are reared in isolation, their bodeis grow, but they become little more than big animals. Without the concepts that language provides, they can’t grasp relationships between people. In short, it is through human contact that people learn to be members of the human comminity. We need socialization.

Describe several of the key findings of the famouse Harlow monkey studies. Was it possible for a monkey to overcome early social deprivation?
The Harlow’s raised baby monkeys in isolation. They gave each monkey two artificial mothers. One just a wire frame with a bottle, the other the same exept with a cloth and no bottle. When frightened the baby monkeys would cling to the cloth mother, because they needed intimate physical contact. Monkeys raised in isolation could not adjust adjust to monkey life. Placed with other monkeys when they were grown they din’t participate in “monkey interaction” to play and to engage in pretend fights- other monkeys rejected them. Females that had been in isolation that got pregnant were brutal mothers. Monkeys that had been in isolation for shorter periods of time (3 Monthes) were able to adjust to the monkey life. Those isolated for six monthes or more, however, couldn’t make the adjustment and other monkeys rejected them.

What exactly is socialization? When does it begin and does it continue throughout the lifespan? Is it always intentional?
Socialization= The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group-the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions throughout appropriate for them. It starts at birth, and it conitinues through interactions with people. It’s not always intentional we just pick things up without even noticing it.

Describe Cooley’s Looking Glass Theory.
Looking-glass self= A term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing of other see us.
(There are 3 elements)
1. We imagine how we appear to those around us. Example, we may think that others persceive us as witty or dull.
2. We interpret others’ reactions.= We come to conclustions about how others evaluate us. Do they like us for being witty? Do they dislike us for being dull.
3. We develop a self concept.= How we interpret others’ reactions to us frames our feelings and ideas about ourselves. a favorable reflection in this social mirror leads to a positive self-concept; a negative reflection leads to a negative self-concept.

What did George Herbert Mead consider to be the most important in becoming a full-fledged member of society?
Mead analyzed taking the role of the other as an essential part of learning to be a full-fledge member of society.
We do this in three stages:
Stage 1: Imitation- Childgen under the age of 3. No sence of self, They imitate others.
Stage 2: Play- Ages 3-6 Play “pretend” others (Princess, Spiderman, Etc.)
Stage 3: Team Games- After about age 6 or 7, team games (“orginized Play”) Learn to take multiple roles.

Significant Other
An individual who significantly influences someone else’s life.By G.H. Mead

Generalized Other
The norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people ” in general”, the childs ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of others. By G.H. Mead

What types of “female” traits are encouraged in socialization of our daughters?
Daughters to be daitier and more compliant.

What types of “masculine” traits are encouraged in socialization of our sons?
Parents encourage boys to participate in more rough-and-tumble play. They expect their sons to get dirtier and be more defient.

Be able to describe Piagets four stages of cognitive development.
A. Sensiormotor
B. Pre-operational
C. Concrete Operations
D. Formal Operations
A. Sensiormotor stage- (from birth to about age 2)- Our understanding is limited to direct contact-sucking, touching, listening, looking. We aren’t able to think. During this stage, we do not even know that are bodies are seperated from the envirement. We do not know that our actions cause something to happen.

B. Preoperational Stage- (age 2-7)- We develop the ability to use symbols. We do not yet understand common concepts such as size, speed, or causation. Although we are learning to count, we do not really understand what numbers mean.

C. Concrete Operational Stage- (Ages 7-12)- Our reasoning abilities are more developed but remain concrete. We understand nubers, size, causation, and speed, and we are able to take the role of the other. we can even play games.

D. Formal Operational Stage (12 and after)- We now are capable of absrtact thinking. We can talk about concepts, come to conclutions based on general principles, and use rules to solve problems. During this stage, we are likely to become young philosophers.

I. He observed these stages of development in humans around the world and emphasized orderly cognitive development which was greatly influence by biologucal maturation.

Be able to discuss Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory and the three parts of personality in the order of thier development. Do most sociologist endorse Freud’s strong emphasis upon sex and aggression biological determination?
Sigmund Freud founded psychoanalysis, a technique for treating emotional problems through long term exploration of the subconsious mind. Freud believed that personality considt of three elements.
1. Id- Freuds term for our inborn basic drives. Like cries for hunger pains.
2. Ego- Freuds term for a balancing force between the id and demands of society.
3. Superego- Freuds term for conscience; the internalized norms and values of our society.
Sociologis appreciated Freud’s emphasis on socialization. Sociologist, however object to the view that inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary reasons for human behavior.

According to Kohlberg and Gilligan, how does one’s conscience and sence of morality develop? Are there predictible and significant differences between the way males and females decide what is ethical? Explain
Pschologologist Lawrence Kohlberg concluded that we go through a sequance of stages as we develop morality.
1. Amoral Stage- Children start her their is no roght or wrong just personal needs.
2. Preconventional Stage- age 7-10 they have learned rules, and they follow them to stay out of trouble.
3. Conventional Stage- At age 10, During this period, morality means following the norms and values they have learned.
4. Postconventional Stage- Which Kohlberg says most people don’t reach, individuals reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong and judge people’s behavior according to these principles.

Gilligan concluded that weman are more likely to evaluate morality in terms of personal relationships. Men in contrast tend to think more along the lines of abstract principles that define right and wrong.

Know that socialization establishes self-concepts, creates the capacity for role-taking and creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable way.