CHO Structure & Function

monosaccharide
3-7 carbons, aldehyde on C1 or ketone on C2, -OH on all others
disaccharide
2 monosaccharides
polysaccharide
thousands of monosaccharides
monosaccharide chiral structure
1 H, 1 OH on each chiral carbon, may contain many chiral carbons
number of chiral carbons results in ___ stereoisomers
2^n stereoisomers
number of chiral carbons results in ___ pairs of enantiomers
1/2 the # of stereoisomers
D isomer
-OH on furthest chiral C is on right
L isomer
-OH on furthest chiral C is on left
anomeric
alpha/beta forms, located on the hemiacetal C
what happens when oxidation is uncoupled from phosphorylation
oxygen consumption increases, no ATP produces
disaccharide formation
glycosidic bond between two monosaccharides
maltose
D-glucose + D-glucose joined by a-1,4 link
lactose
D-galactose + D-glucose joined by B-1,4
sucrose
D-fructose + D-glucose joined by a-1,2
chitin
polysaccharide, shells of lobsters & insects
lubricant on joint & extracellular spaces
hyaluronate, chondroitin 6-sulfate
anticoagulant
heparin
glycoprotein
short carbohydrate chains bonded to proteins
cellulose structure
straight chain polymer of B-D-glucose with B-1,4 links
starch structure
polymer of a-D-glucose with a-1,4 links
amylose
straight-chain starch
amylopectin
branched starch
glycogen
like amylopectin, but more branches
monosaccharides
products that enter bloodstream from digestion
glucose is converted to ____ once inside the cell
glucose 6-phosphate
glycolysis
conversion of glucose to pyruvate, 2 Pyr/2 NADH/2 ATP per glucose
glycogenesis
synthesis of glycogen from glucose
pentose phosphate pathway
when need for ribose-5-phosphate or NADPH exceeds need for ATP
result of insufficient oxygen
pyruvate reduced to L-lactate and NAD+ produced
insulin
produced when glucose rises, speeds up glycolysis & glycogen synthesis
glucagon
produced when glucose drops, speeds up glucose production in liver form storage via gluconeogenesis
gluconeogenesis
synthesis of glucose via amino acids, lactate, or glycerol (fatty tissue)
starvation results in energy production from ______
proteins, then ketones
results of diabetes
cataracts, ketoacidosis, blood vessels lesions
glycogenesis
synthesis of glycogen, stores excess glucose in muscles & liver
glycogenolysis
release of stored glucose, from muscled in immediate need for energy, from liver when glucose is low

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