Chloroplast functions + anatomy

AutotrophOrganisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds
Photosynthesisthe process autotrophs use to convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds
light reactionsThe first stage of photosynthesis; light energy (abosorbed from the sun) is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy carrier molecule NADPH

Calvin CycleCycle where organic compounds are formed using CO2 and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH
Chemosynthesisbiological conversion of one or more carbon molecules into organic materials using the oxidation of inorganic substances as a source of energy rather than sunlight
Heterotrophorganisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from the sun or inorganic substances
Thylakoidsystem of membranes where light reactions happen
Grana/Granumstacks of thylakoids
Stromasolution that surrounds the grana
chlorophyllspigments involved in light reactions and located in the thykaloids that absorb violets and reds but reflect green
carotenoidsaccesory pigment located in the thykaloids that reflect yellows and oranges; helps absorb light chlorophyll a cannot
chlorophyll areflects green light and absorbs reds and violets; main contributor to light reactions
chlorophyll baccessory pigment;helps in light reactions
primary electron acceptoraccepts lost electrons from chlorophyll during light reaction in Photosystem I
electron transport chainA chain of electrons donated from the primary electron acceptor; transfers electrons from one molecule to the next which loses their energy and goes to protons in the thykaloid
chemiostosisthe movement of ions across a membrane, which allows ATP to synthesize
NADPHElectrons from the electron transport chain combine with a proton and NADP+, which reduces it to this
ADP+PThe used form of ATP from light reactions
Carbon fixationThe process of turning inorganic material into organic material
StomataSmall holes in leaves that can open or close to absorb sunlight
C4 PathwayPlants close their stomata partially in the hottest part of the day to conserve water.
CAM PathwayPlants close their stomata during the day and open them at night, allowing it to conserve water and take in CO2 and fix it to organic compounds. During the day, they close their stromata and CO2 is released from these compounds and enter the Calvin Cycle
Light Intensity & Photosynthesis rateWhile one increases, so does the other because the factor excites more electrons, causing the process to go faster. However, at one point all electrons are excited and rate levels off
CO2 & Photosynthesis rateSame as light intesity; stimulates to a point before leveling off
Temperature & Photosynthesis rateWhile the factor increases, the rate inclines then declines. Increasing the factor accelerates chemical reactions in photosynthesis until the enzymes that catalyze become ineffective
What goes in light reactions?Sunlight and H20
What comes out of light reactions?O2
What goes in the Calvin Cycle?CO2
What comes out of the Calvin Cycle?Glucose
What energies are used at the beginning of a light reaction?ATP & NADPH
What energies are used at the end of a light reaction?NADP+ & ADP + P
Where does light reaction occur?thylakoids/granum
Where does the calvin cycle occur?Stroma
What two products of the light reactions are used up in the Calvin cycle?NADPH & ATP
Reaction formula for photosynthesis6CO2 + 6H20 -> C6 H12 6O2
How can cells store the sugar that is produced in photosynthesis?Starch
Read also ADP Biology