Chemistry Unit 9 Study Guide

Solution
Is formed when substances dissolve in other substances. The 2 parts are solvent and solute.
Solvent
Present in a larger amount and dissolves the solute to make a solution.
Solute
Present in a lesser amount and dissolves in the solvent.
Electrolyte
Dissolves in solution to form a solution that conducts electricity.
Non-electrolyte
Dissolves in water to form a solution that does not conduct electricity.
Molarity
The number of moles of solute dissolves per liter of solution.
M=miles of solute/liters of solution
Solubility
A measure of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature.
3 Factors that Affect Solubility
Nature of the solute and solvent, temperature, and pressure
Unsaturated
Contains less dissolves solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution.
Saturated
Contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.
Supersaturated
Contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature. *unstable
Arrhenius Acid
Acid releases hydrogen ions and base releases hydroxide ions.
Properties of Acids
-Sour taste
-Conduct electricity
-React with metals to produce hydrogen gas
-React with base to produce water and salt
-Turns blue litmus paper red and phenolphthalein clear
Properties of Bases
-Bitter taste
-Slippery
-Conduct electricity
-Reacts with acid to produce water and salt
-Turns red litmus paper blue and phenolphthalein pink
pH
Negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of a solution.
Neutralization Reaction
A reaction in which an acid and a base in an aqueous solution react to produce a salt and water.