Chemistry: Unit 3, Atomic Structure, Theory, & Electron Configuration Test Questions Flashcard

chapters 4 5 34
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
Matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms
Atom
Smallest particle of an element that retains the same properties of an element
Cathode Ray
A ray originating from the cathode traveling to the anode
Electron
Negatively charged particles that are part in all forms of matter
Nucleus
Tiny dense region in the center of the atom
Proton
Subatomic particle carrying a change equal to but opposite that of an electron
Neutron
A subatomic particle that has mass nearly equal to that of a proton
Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom
Isotope
Atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Mass Number
Sum of the atomic number and neutrons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass Number(AMU)
One twelfth the mass of a Carbon-12 atom
Atomic Mass
Element is the weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element
Radioactivity
Substances spontaneous emitted radiation
Radiation
Rays and particles emitted by the radio active material
Nuclear Reaction
A reaction that involves a change in an atoms nucleus
Radioactive Delay
Unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation in a spontaneous process
Alpha Radiation
Radiation that was deflected toward the negatively charged plate
Alpha particle
Contains two protons and two neutrons
Nuclear equation
Shows the atomic numbers and the mass of the particles involved
Beta radiation
Radiation deflected toward the positively charged plate
Beta particle
An electron with a negative charge
Gamma ray
High energy radiation that possess no mass and is detonated by the symbol because they are not deflected
Electromagnetic radiation
A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
Wavelength
The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave
Frequency
The number of waves that pass a given point per second
Amplitude
The wave’s height from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough
Electromagnetic spectrum
Includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation, with the only differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies and wavelengths
Quantum
The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Planck’s constant
Has a value of 6.626 times 10^-34 J*s, where J is the symbol for joule, the SI unit of energy
Photoelectric effect
Electrons are emitted from a metal’s surface when light of a certain frequency , or higher than a certain frequency
Photon
A mass less particle that carries a quantum of energy
Atomic emission spectrum
The set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element
Ground State
The lowest allowable energy of an atom
Quantum number
a number, n
De Brogile equation
Predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristic
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
States that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time
Quantum mechanical model of the atom
The atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves
Atomic orbital
The three dimensional region around the nucleus which describes the electrons probable equation
Principal Quantum number
Indicates the relative size and energy of atomic orbitals
Principal energy level
Each major energy level
Energy sublevel
Principle energy levels contain…
Electron configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
Aufbau principle
Each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
Pauli exclusion principle
A maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins
Hund’s rule
Single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
Valence electron
Electrons in the atom’s outermost orbitals
Electron-dot structure
Consists of the elements symbol, which represents the

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member