Chemistry: The study of change – chapter 1

Define chemistry
The study of matter and the changes it undergoes
Define matter
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass
A physical change does not alter the _________________ or _________________ of a substance/
composition or identity of a substance
What alters the composition or identity of the substances involved?
A chemical change (hydrogen burns in water to form water)
What is considered the “central science”?
Give three examples of chemistry in health and medicine
sanitation systems, surgery with anesthesia, vaccines/antibiotics
Give three examples of chemistry in energy and the environment
fossil fuels, solar energy, nuclear energy
Give three examples of chemistry in materials and technology
polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals, room temperature superconductors, molecular computing
Give three examples of chemistry in food and agriculture
genetically modified crops, “natural” pesticides, specialized fertilizers
chemistry is usually divided into 6 areas of study – what are they?
Organic chemistry
Inorganic chemistry
Analytical chemistry
physical chemistry
environmental chemistry
Define organic chemistry
The study of nearly all substances that contain CARBON
Define Inorganic chemistry
The study of substances that DO NOT contain CARBON usually from non-living things
Define Analytical chemistry
The study of the composition of substnaces
Define Physical chemistry
The study concerned with the behavior of chemicals (mostly math)
Define biochemistry
The study of the chemistry of LIVING organisms
Define environmental chemistry
The study of the environmental “ills” and ways to address them.
What is the scientific method?
The logical approach to the solution of scientific problems and/or gathering of information
What are the 5 steps to the scientific method?
1. Observation – using senses to obtain information
2. Hypothesis – proposed explanation ofr what is observed
3. Experiment – test hypothesis
4. Analyze data
5. Form a conclusion
Theories vs. Laws: define theory
Well tested hypothesis, explanation of some aspect of nature, supported by evidence, generally accepted as true
Theories vs. Laws: define scientific law
Describes some aspect of nature.