Chemistry Matter and Change Chapter 13

Kinetic Molecular Theory
describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion

Elastic Collision
is one in which no kinetic energy is lost

Temperature
Is a measure of the avg. KE of particles in a sample of matter

Diffusion
The term used to describe the movement of one material through another

Graham’s Law of Effusion
States that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass

Pressure
force per unit area

Barometer
is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure

Pascal
Is equal to a force of one N per square meter

Atmosphere
Is equal to 760 mmHg, 760 torr, or 101.3 kPa

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of pressure of all gasses in the mixture

Dispersion Force
are weak forces that result from temporary shifts in the density of electrons in the electron cloud

Dipole-dipole forces
attractions b/w oppositely charge regions of polar molecules

Hydrogen Bond
a dipole dipole attraction that occurs b/w molecules containing a H atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom w/ at least on lone electron pair

Viscosity
a measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow

Surface Tension
the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount

Surfactants
compounds that lower the surface tension of H20

Crystalline Solid
a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, geometric structure

Unit Cell
the smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal

Allortrope
an element such as, C, that exists in different forms at the same state solid, liquid, or gas

Amorphous Solid
one in which the particles not arranged in a regular, repeating, pattern. Does NOT contain crystals

Melting Point
of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which the forces holding its crystal lattice together are broken and it becomes a liquid

Vaporization
the process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor

Deposition
the process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without becoming a liquid

Boyle’s law
states the volume of a fixed amount of a gas held at a constant temp. varies inversely with pressure

Absolute Zero
Zero on the K scale lowest possible theoretical temperature

Charle’s Law
states that the volume of a given amount of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temp at a constant pressure

Gay-Lussac’s Law
states that the pressure of a fixed amount of a gas varies directly with the K temp. when the volume remains constant

Combined gas law
states the relationship among pressure, temp. an volume of a fixed amount of a gas all 3 variables are in relationship to each other

Avagadro’s principle
states that equal volumes of gases at the same temp. and pressure contain equal numbers of particles

Molar Volume
of a gas is the volume that 1 mol occupies at O degree C and 1 atm pressure

Ideal gas constant
represented by symbol R experiments using known values of P,T, V and n have determine the value is constant

Ideal gas Law
describes the physical behavior of an ideal gas in terms of the pressure volume temp and number of moles of a gas present