Chemistry Matter and Change Chapter 13

Kinetic Molecular Theory
describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion
Elastic Collision
is one in which no kinetic energy is lost
Temperature
Is a measure of the avg. KE of particles in a sample of matter
Diffusion
The term used to describe the movement of one material through another
Graham’s Law of Effusion
States that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass
Pressure
force per unit area
Barometer
is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
Pascal
Is equal to a force of one N per square meter
Atmosphere
Is equal to 760 mmHg, 760 torr, or 101.3 kPa
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of pressure of all gasses in the mixture
Dispersion Force
are weak forces that result from temporary shifts in the density of electrons in the electron cloud
Dipole-dipole forces
attractions b/w oppositely charge regions of polar molecules
Hydrogen Bond
a dipole dipole attraction that occurs b/w molecules containing a H atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom w/ at least on lone electron pair
Viscosity
a measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow
Surface Tension
the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount
Surfactants
compounds that lower the surface tension of H20
Crystalline Solid
a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, geometric structure
Unit Cell
the smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal
Allortrope
an element such as, C, that exists in different forms at the same state solid, liquid, or gas
Amorphous Solid
one in which the particles not arranged in a regular, repeating, pattern. Does NOT contain crystals
Melting Point
of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which the forces holding its crystal lattice together are broken and it becomes a liquid
Vaporization
the process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor
Deposition
the process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without becoming a liquid
Boyle’s law
states the volume of a fixed amount of a gas held at a constant temp. varies inversely with pressure
Absolute Zero
Zero on the K scale lowest possible theoretical temperature
Charle’s Law
states that the volume of a given amount of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temp at a constant pressure
Gay-Lussac’s Law
states that the pressure of a fixed amount of a gas varies directly with the K temp. when the volume remains constant
Combined gas law
states the relationship among pressure, temp. an volume of a fixed amount of a gas all 3 variables are in relationship to each other
Avagadro’s principle
states that equal volumes of gases at the same temp. and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
Molar Volume
of a gas is the volume that 1 mol occupies at O degree C and 1 atm pressure
Ideal gas constant
represented by symbol R experiments using known values of P,T, V and n have determine the value is constant
Ideal gas Law
describes the physical behavior of an ideal gas in terms of the pressure volume temp and number of moles of a gas present