Chemistry I Final Exam Study Guide

Avogadros Number
number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 X 10^23

Empirical Formula
the symbols for the elements combined in a compound with subscripts showing the smallest whole-number mole ratio of the different atoms in the compund.

Molecular Formula
a formula the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound.

Mole
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12

Molar Mass
the mass of one mole of a pure substance

Stoichiometry
deals with the mass relationships of elements in compounds

Limiting Reactant
the reactant that limits the amounts of the other reactants that can combine and the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction

Boyle’s Law
The volume of a fixed massof gas varies inversely with pressure at constant temperature.

Charles’ Law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas at connstant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature

Ideal gas Law
the mathmatical relationship of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of mole of a gas.

Absolute Zero
the temperature -273.15C, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale

STP
the agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0C

Intramolecular Forces
forces within a compound holding atoms together (1. Ionic, 2. Covalent, 3. Metallic Bonds)

Intermolecular Forces
the force of attraction between molecules. (1. Dispersion, 2. Dipole-Dipole, 3. Hydrogen Bonds)

Viscosity
friction or resistance to motion between liquid molecules.

Surface Tension
the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size.

Heat Of Vaporization
heat required to change a substance from a liquid to a gas.

Heat Of Fusion
heat required to change a substance from a solid to a liquid.

Vaporization
the process by which a liquid or solid changes to gas

Condensation
The change of state from a gas to a liquid

Solute
Gets Dissolved/Smaller Quantity

Solvent
Does the dissolving/Larger Quantity

Soluble
capable of being dissolved

Insoluble
not able to dissolve

Saturated Solution
Full of Solute

Unsaturated Solution
less solute than you can hold

Supersaturated Solution
more solute than you can hold

Acid
release H+ ions in aqueous solutions proton donors

Base
release OH- ions in aqueous solutions protons acceptors

Indicator
substance that changes color to indicate the presence of acids or bases.

Neutralization Reacton
the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules.

Salt
an ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an acid; an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.