Chemistry Chapter 8 and 9

Binary
A compund that contains only two different elements.  
Binary Ionic Compounds
A compound which contains a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion and only contains two different elements. 
Crystal Lattice
A three-dimensional geometric arrangement of particles.  Each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions and each negative ion is surrounded by positive ions.   Tha atoms are localized and not malleable. 
Physical properties
Melting point, boiling point, and hardness are all _____________ which depend on how strongly the particles are attracted to each other. 
Electrolyte
An ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current. 
Endothermic
When energy is absorbed during a chemical reaction. 
Exothermic
When energy is released during a chemical reaction. 
Lattice Energy
The amount of energy that is required to separate one mole of the ions of an ionic compound. 
Formula Unit
The simplest ratios of the ions represented in an ionic compound. 
Monatomic Ion
A one-atom Ion.  Example: Mg2
Oxidation Number
The charge of a monatomic ion. 
Polyatomic Ions
Ions made up of more than one atom. 
Oxyanion
A polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms.  
Electron Sea Model
Model that proposes that all the metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a sea of electrons. 
Delocalized Electrons
Electrons that are free to move
Metallic Bond
The attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons. 
Alloy
A mixture of elements that has metallic properties. 
Substitutional Alloys
Alloy that has atoms of the original metalic solid replaced by other metal atoms of similar size.  Examples: sterling silver (When copper replaces the silver atoms in the original metallic crystal).  
Interstitial Alloys
Alloys that are formed when the small holes in a metallic crystal are filled with smaller atoms.  Example:  Carbon Steel (holes in the iron crystals are filled with carbon atoms, and the physical properties of iron are changed).
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons. Generally occurs when elements are relatively close to eachother on the periodic table. 
Diatomic Molecules

F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, H2, N2, O2 

Are examples of ________ molecules. 

Lone Pairs
Unshared Pairs of electrons in a covalent bond. 
Sigma bonds
Another name for single covalent bonds. 
The Pi Bond
A bond formed when parallel orbitals overlap to share electrons.  The shared electrons of a pi bond occupies the space above and below the line that represents where the two atoms are joined. 
Bond length
The distance between the two bonding nuclei at the position of maximum attraction. 

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